The Benefits of Working with a Co-Teacher

When I first started teaching, I used to think I could and had to do it all.  I would arrive to school early and stay late just so that I could accomplish everything.  I would never think to ask for help and certainly never accepted it when offered as I thought it was a sign of weakness.  I was an island unto myself and I liked it that way.  Little did I know how harmful it was to me and my teaching.  By not talking to other colleagues and bouncing ideas around with them or asking for help, my teaching became very stagnant very quickly.  I figured that everything I did was great as I had no one to say otherwise, and so I kept doing the same thing year after year.  Then, I worked with a co-teacher and everything changed.  I realized that I was far from perfect and needed to change my approach in the classroom.  So, I did.  I grew and became a better teacher because I had someone who could provide me with feedback and offer help and support at every turn.  My first co-teacher became one of my best friends as we worked so closely together.  I offered her suggestions on her teaching and life and she did the same for me.  We both grew and became effective educators because of this collaboration.  Working with someone else who can offer me advice, feedback, support, and help is one of the greatest things that has happened to me in my professional life.

Today’s STEM class provided me with yet another prime example of how vital and important a co-teacher can truly be.  My students are in the midst of a project that will allow them to understand where they stand mathematically,  Are they ready for seventh grade math?  If not, what gaps still exist in their learning that need to be filled?  Are they ready for pre-algebra or algebra I?  This project is all about helping them figure out what they need to do over the summer to prepare for the math course that they would like to be in next year.  In class today, the students were working on filling in their learning gaps by watching videos, working with a peer, or asking the teachers questions.  It also meant that I needed to be available to provide them with practice problems and worksheets.  As I was busy setting the students up with practice activities, my co-teacher fielded questions the boys had and monitored their work habits to be sure they were focused and working to prepare for Thursday’s final placement exam.  We worked together like a well-oiled machine.  It was phenomenal.  The boys were all on track learning new skills and reviewing old ones.  While there was a lot going on in the classroom, it was very controlled and focused.

Today’s class went so smoothly because my co-teacher was in the room providing support and help to the students while I was busy creating their practice assignments.  If she wasn’t there to help, chaos would have ensued very quickly.  The students would have been yelling and screaming for help and perhaps even swinging from the lights.  Our STEM class works so smoothly on days like today because of our co-teaching model.  We support one another and the students very well.  It’s great.  I can’t imagine trying to do what I did today without her support.  It would have been nightmarish.  Having extra help in the classroom, a person to provide you with feedback, and a creative sounding board are just some of the amazing benefits of working with a co-teacher.  While I realize that it’s just not feasible for every classroom or teacher to have a co-teacher with whom to work, when complex projects are being worked on, it is hugely helpful for both the teachers and the students to have a co-teacher in the classroom.

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Helping Students to Own their Learning

As a teacher, I sometimes feel as though parents and people in positions of power blame teachers for problems in our country: “Our leaders can’t lead because of bad teachers.  Kids get into drugs because the schools and teachers aren’t doing their jobs.  My son is getting a C in history because his teacher isn’t doing his job”  No one is willing to take ownership for their actions and choices, and so it seems to be easier to blame teachers and schools as students spend so much time at school anyway.  Parents aren’t willing to take responsibility for their ineffective parenting because then it makes them look bad.  Just blame the teachers.  And this is one of the main problems with education in our country.  Our government has made it acceptable to blame teachers for problems facing our country and its youth; therefore, teachers are not given the respect they need and deserve.  Teachers work long hours, all year long despite what many people seem to think, to create engaging and meaningful lessons.  Teachers go out of their way to help support and challenge students.  We care for our students as if they were our own.  We are not paid what we deserve and schools rarely help support teachers when problems arise.  People no longer want to go into the field of teaching or stay there long because of how we are treated by the community and country.  Until our country takes ownership of their actions and choices, teachers are going to continually be viewed like Cameron Diaz in the movie Bad Teacher.

To help my sixth grade students begin to learn the power of ownership as it pertains to their learning, I’ve created a final math project that will help set them up for success in their seventh grade math class.  I want my students to realize that they are in control of what math section into which they are placed next year, and that it’s not fixed based on their work in the classroom this year.  I want them to own their learning so that one day they will own their actions and choices, paying teachers and schools the respect they deserve.

The project is divided into four phases:

  1. The students will complete what I’m calling the Math Pre-Placement Exam, which includes a series of questions based on the three different levels of math offered in the seventh grade.  The first page of the exam has the students reflect and respond on their math ability regarding the specific section they feel they will be or should be placed into next year.  I want them to set a goal for themselves before completing this project so that they can begin to align their self-perspective with the reality.  The final page of the exam is a guide sheet that shows them which questions are related to which particular course.  Once they have completed the exam, they will be provided with the answer key and grade their exam.  This will give them a good idea of where they are currently in their math trajectory.
  2. Then, the students will do some reflecting on their performance on this pre-placement exam.  They will make note of any gaps in their learning, skills they haven’t yet mastered, and then learn those skills via Khan Academy, working with the teacher, or seeking help from a peer.  They will practice these skills by completing problems in the textbook or on worksheets.
  3. Once I feel they have mastered the skills they are lacking, they will complete the final Math Placement Exam, which is very similar to the one they may take at the start of the next academic year.  They will then grade their exam to see how they have progressed and to help them see into which math course they may be placed next year.
  4. The final phase of this unit involves the students reflecting on this whole process as well as creating an action plan for what they will do over the summer to be sure they are prepared for seventh grade math and the course in which they would like to be placed.

I want my students to see where their math skills line up with the math courses offered at my school in the seventh grade.  I find that sometimes students think they are better or worse at math than they truly are.  This way, they can see what is what and then take ownership of their learning.  They get to decide what they want to do to be placed into the math course that they feel would be best for them.  It takes teacher placement out of the equation and puts the onus on the students.  They have the power to change their future.  If they do poorly on the placement exams but really feel as though they should in Algebra I or Pre-Algebra next year, they have the entire summer to prepare for the placement exam come September.  The figurative math ball is in their court.

I’m excited about this project that we just began yesterday in STEM class.  I feel as though it will help the students fill in any gaps in their math learning and help them see the reality of their math skills.  The boys seemed invested in this project and process yesterday when I introduced it.  They asked some great questions and seem to know that the power lies within them regarding what math class they will be in next year.  I’m hopeful that this project will help them feel and be as successful as they want to be while also learning how to own their choices and learning.  If I want my students to grow up to be able to make good choices and then own them, I need to create learning opportunities in the classroom for them to practice showing ownership now.

Does Study and Preparation Impact the Outcome of an Assessment?

In my previous blog entry from yesterday, I examined the most effective way to help prepare students for a math assessment.  I hypothesized that because we provided the students with lots of extra time to review, practice, seek help, and prepare for the exam, that they would all fare quite well and not need to complete the test redo process.  Following Saturday’s final preparation period, I felt as though each and every student was prepared and ready for the assessment.

Then came the assessment, today in STEM class.  While many of the students did do quite well and felt successful, two of the students in my math groups do need to complete the redo process for one objective.  Now, this isn’t at all a negative outcome.  In fact, today’s result is actually an improvement from past assessments.  Usually, at least three to five students need to complete the redo process for one or more of the objectives.  This time, only two students need to redo one objective.  That’s a huge change from earlier in the year.  So, in my mind, the extra preparation and review time we allowed, helped the students better meet, and in many cases, exceed the graded objectives.  The boys seemed to feel prepared and felt confident, for the most part, when they turned in their completed assessment.  In my mind, today’s outcome was successful and positive in every way, and proved that students do need extra time to process information to prepare for a math assessment.

But what about those two students who need to complete the redo process for one objective?  What happened there?  Why did they struggle to display their ability to meet one graded objective?  Did they not effectively study and review the skills covered outside of class?  Each of the two students struggled with the same objective involving word problems.  They were unable to transform a word problem into an algebraic expression in simplest form.  Was this because the problems were too tricky?  The two problems came directly from previous lesson check-in assessments, and had been reviewed and discussed in class on a few separate occasions.  While they were challenging problems, they were not impossible or meant to fool the students in any way.  So then, why did these two students get both word problems wrong on their chapter assessment?  What happened?  Although their answers were, in some cases, somewhat close and showed an understanding of the skill, they did not simplify their response or properly execute the needed computations.  In this particular case, more review did not help these students understand how to turn written descriptions into algebraic expressions.  Would anything have helped them?  Some students just struggle with word problems, which is why we completed a whole unit on how to tackle word problems earlier in the year.  I even reviewed the four steps involved in the problem solving process when the students worked on this skill of turning words into algebraic expressions.  Nothing seemed to help these two students with this one objective.  While I would have loved to have seen all of my students master every objective covered on today’s assessment, these two students still have a chance to master the skill with which they struggled by completing the redo process.  Some students just struggle with word problems and how to decipher them.

Overall though, I was very pleased with today’s outcome and realized how important giving the students time to review major concepts prior to completing an assessment is to the learning process.  We can’t expect our students to master skills in just a day or two before completing an assessment; they need time to ask questions, complete practice problems, and review the concepts covered before demonstrating their mastery of the skills or topics covered.

How Much Test Preparation is Effective?

I was never a good test taker in school.  For one, I didn’t really know how to study.  Do I reread the pages in the text book?  Make flashcards of vocabulary terms?  Reread my notes a bunch of times?  My teachers never taught me how to study.  So, I usually just glanced over my notes and called it a day.  As I was a relatively good writer, essay exams were my jam.  I generally aced those.  But when it came to standardized tests or multiple guess exams, I struggled.  The questions were tricky on purpose and I didn’t know the material well enough to take an educated guess.  No test prep in the world could have helped me when I took a fill-in-the-bubble test.

As a teacher, I’m armed with my experiences as a student.  I hated tests and still feel as though they prove very little about how much students have learned material.  Most students cram for exams and will often due quite well, but when you ask them about the content learned weeks later, they remember almost nothing.  In those cases, there was clearly no genuine learning taking place.  So, as a teacher, I rarely use tests as assessments, except for math, as that is how they will be assessed in all future math classes at my school.  Being mindful of this, I know that I need to prepare them for next year.  Following each math unit, I have the students complete a math assessment.  I make sure there are no multiple choice questions on the exam.  I also spend much time going over study strategies and techniques.  What’s the best way to study and what does that look like?  Usually though, I only have one day of review in class prior to the assessment, and what I have found is that some students struggled on the assessment.

Keeping this in mind when I planned my current math unit, I made sure to leave more than a week for review, discussion, and preparation.  I want all of my students to feel ready and prepared while also being successful.  I had the students complete a math review packet last week.  Once they completed the packet, I gave them the answer key so that they could correct their work.  For every problem they got wrong, they had to explain why it was wrong, as I want them to own their learning and truly comprehend the skills covered throughout the unit.  Then, I made myself available throughout the week during class and outside of class for extra help.  A few students took advantage of this extra support and saw me for help.  I addressed their questions and had them complete sample problems regarding the skills with which they struggled.  This seemed to help those few students feel much more prepared and at ease for Monday’s exam.

As this lengthy preparation is a big change from past units, I wonder if this new method is more or less effective.  Did I spend too much time preparing my students for tomorrow’s math assessment?  I could have used that week to begin another unit.  Did I spend too much time having the boys review the major vocabulary terms covered in the unit?  Will they be better prepared for tomorrow’s exam because they were provided with extra time to process the information and complete some practice problems?  Will I see a difference on their assessments?  I’m hopeful that they will all do very well as I feel as though I had a chance to check-in with all of them over the course of last week to be sure they understood and had mastered all of the skills covered.  I’ll have to wait until tomorrow to find out for certain, but I do feel as though giving the students extra time to review for tomorrow’s assessment will help them be and feel successful.

When Things Don’t Go as Planned in the Classroom

I like to think of myself as a classroom prognosticator.  I feel as though I am generally quite good at predicting the future in my classroom.  I know that if two particular students sit together, they will chat and distract each other all day long.  I also know that my students will be excited in Humanities class on Monday because they love Reader’s Workshop.  My crystal spherical object usually points me in the right direction.  Because I spend so much time planning and preparing for lessons, activities, and field trips, I almost always know how things will go in the classroom.  I need extra time for some lessons and less time for others.  I know these things to be true because I’ve experienced them before.  New things, lessons, or activities, on the other hand, are a different beast entirely.  While I am still pretty good at predicting how new things will go in the classroom, every once in awhile my prediction turns out to be wrong.  Now, why is this, you must be asking yourself.  If I am so good at reading the future on a daily basis, why do I struggle with predicting the outcome of new events?  It’s those unknown factors.  What if the technology doesn’t work properly?  What if students don’t understand my directions?  What if there is a fire drill during the lesson?  Those unknown variables are the ones that mess me up.  They are my kryptonite.  Although I try to prepare for every unknown situation, it’s just not possible.  I occasionally miss one or two variables every time I plan a new lesson.  Generally, those variables are so minute or not relevant that the lesson usually will still usually go as planned; however, there are exceptions to every rule.

Today saw one of those exceptions play out in my STEM class.  My goal was to help the students learn how to use the flashcard making application Quizlet to create flashcards for the vocabulary terms we’ve covered in our math unit.  I had the list of words already prepared and posted to our learning management system.  I checked it twice yesterday to make sure that it still worked.  I played around with Quizlet to be sure I knew how to navigate the website as well.  I even made a test set of flashcards to try out the games and test.  I felt ready and prepared.  I had thought of everything, except the biggest, most crucial part: What if the students can’t locate the vocabulary terms in their math book?  I failed to think about how they would locate the terms in their book.  What if the definition wasn’t in their book?  What if they needed to infer the meaning of the word from the book?  What if they couldn’t remember a certain concept?  Then what are they supposed to do?

After explaining the activity to the students, modeling how to use Quizlet, and answering all of their questions, I let them get to work.  Soon after they started working, the questions started pouring in.  “I can’t find the definition.  What if I don’t know what the word means?  I don’t understand this word?” many of the students said as they worked on the task of making math vocabulary flashcards.  I had forgotten to tell them how to use their book to find the words and what to do when a word wasn’t directly defined in the text.  While most students were able to draw conclusions on their own to solve the task, a few students struggled to complete this task because of the directions I had omitted.  Had I better explained this portion of the activity, they might have felt more successful and needed less of my support.  What I thought was going to take 15 minutes, ended up taking more than 30 minutes to complete.

The moral of this story is, I can’t predict the future no matter how hard I try.  Unknown variables are called that because no one knows what they are.  They are unknown for a reason.  I can’t possibly plan for every single issue, dilemma, or happening.  Luckily, I rolled with today’s lesson and most every student was able to finish the task by the end of class.  I felt a bit off though because I hadn’t properly prepared my students to complete the activity successfully.  Next time, I need to be sure I model how to complete the task and not just how to use the technology tool.  At the end of the period, I shared my thoughts and noticings with the students.  I explained how I thought this activity was going to be short and simple but ended up being a bit convoluted and took much longer than anticipated.  I shared with the boys how I need to better prepare for an activity like this in the future.  I need to be sure I show them how to complete an activity like this.  Although today’s STEM lesson didn’t go entirely as planned, it taught me an important life lesson and allowed me to show vulnerability to my students.  Even teachers make mistakes.  With a growth mindset, failure can quickly be transformed into an opportunity to learn.

How to Effectively Communicate with Students

I was raised in a time when spanking children was an acceptable form of parenting.  When I sat on my baby sister, I got spanked.  What did that teach me, you ask.  Well, it taught me not to sit on my sister, or at least don’t get caught doing it.  It also taught me to fear my parents.  Was that an effective method of parenting?  Well, who am I to say what is right or wrong.  I learned much about life growing up and I feel as though I turned out okay, for the most part.  In the modern world in which we live, parenting like how I was raised is completely unacceptable and unheard of.  If you spank or hit your kids, you can go to jail or lose custody of your children.  We live in a world where words are used to solve conflict and help bring people together.  My wife and I parent through love and compassion.  Of course, we’re stern and hold our son accountable, but we try to do so in a collaborative manner.  It’s not us versus him.  We’re all on this crazy journey together.  While the method of parenting that we are using to raise our son seems to be working, it’s hard to tell if other approaches would be as effective.  Are we doing the right thing?  Saying the right thing?  Are we being too tolerant or too hard?  Parenting, much like teaching, is all about finding what works for the situation and time.  People do and say what they think is right for them.  But, is every approach, action, or word appropriate for every person?  Would raising a completely different child using the same method used to raise me work for that child?  Maybe, but it’s still hard to tell.  Parents and teachers do what they think is best for them and the situation.

Communication is key when connecting with students and building meaningful relationships.  For students to genuinely learn in the classroom, they need to feel safe, cared for, and supported.  How we talk to our students helps lay the foundation for the future.  If we show our students that we care about them and will do whatever it takes to support them, they will reciprocate accordingly.  The opposite is also true, however.  If we talk at our students or use disrespectful words when communicating with them, they will put up walls and be defensive.  Students need to feel cared for, and effective communication is an easy and vital way to make this happen.

Today in STEM class, as my students completed a check-in assessment for the lesson covered in class on Saturday, I noticed that one student, sat, doing nothing.  He wasn’t working or trying to complete his assessment in any way, and he wasn’t asking for help either.  My co-teacher and I have seen this sort of shut-down behavior from this particular student in the past.  When he gets overwhelmed or confused, he will often stop working and sit at his desk area, unmoving, almost motionless.  As I’ve found ways to help him get unstuck and make use of a growth mindset in the past, I wanted to help him again.  Part of me, though, was just frustrated with him.  Because he wasn’t fully engaged in Saturday’s mini-lesson, he struggled to understand the concept, but didn’t ask for assistance or help at all during or after class that day.  So, part of me wanted to ignore him and let him struggle.  Of course, the teacher in me realized that I needed to support and care for him.  So, I thought long and hard about what I would say before I approached him.

“It looks like you are really struggling.  Can I help you in anyway?  What seems to be the problem?” I asked him.  He responded, “It’s not that I don’t know how to do this, it’s just that I don’t remember how to do it.”  I then directed his attention to the first question that asked him to create a table regarding some data.  “Do you understand what you need to do for this one?” I asked.  He then asked some clarifying questions before getting to work.  Once he saw that I wasn’t going to let him struggle and fail without trying to support and help him, he was able to believe in himself and demonstrate his understanding of the skill being assessed.  A few minutes later he asked for assistance on his own.  He didn’t understand what one of the word problems was asking.  So, I reworded it in a way that would make more sense to him.  I also used visual cues.  He then looked at me with a strange expression on his face and said, “Did you just tell me what to do?”  I said, “No, I simply reworded the problem for you in a way that would help you better understand it.  Your brain processed the information in a meaningful way, telling you what to do.”  He then smiled and wrote down the answer.  He finished the rest of the assessment on his own.  He seemed to realize that I was there to support him if need be and so he wasn’t afraid to take a risk and try some of the problems.

Had I spoken to him in a frustrated tone or not carefully chosen my words, I could have caused him to stay shut down throughout the period.  While communication is an important part of connecting with students, it also needs to be effective communication if we want to build strong relationships with our students.  I wanted this particular student to feel cared for and supported and so I needed to make sure I used words that displayed that to him.  While this interaction was successful for this student today, it may not work for every student, every time.  I read this situation and acted accordingly.  If something similar happens to another student, I might need to use a slightly different approach that would work for that student in that moment.  With so many variables at play all of the time, there is not always one right answer when communicating with students; however, there are plenty of wrong ways to communicate with our students, and it’s important that we avoid them.  Thinking before acting and then using compassionate and caring language when communicating with students who are struggling is usually the best approach for these types of situations.

Is Collaboration an Effective Strategy for Teaching Math?

Sometimes I wish life came with an instruction manual.  Sure, it could be digital, but it would need to be prescriptive and descriptive, with diagrams.  In fact, it would probably be best in digital form as it would need to be millions of pages long.  I wonder what that might read like…

  1. Breathe.
  2. Cry.
  3. Drink mother’s milk.
  4. Poop.
  5. Pee.
  6. Sleep.
  7. Cry when you want to wake up.

There would truly be an infinite number of steps.  But wouldn’t it be nice to know how to deal with all that life throws your way?  I would really like validation regarding some of the things I’ve done in the classroom or at home as a husband and father.  Am I really doing the right thing?  Should I have done something differently?  Knowing, for certain, what I am supposed to do ahead of time in various situations would definitely help me feel more prepared.  This way I would also know if what I’m doing is the best option.  While I do like the freedom to choose and the excitement that comes from the unknown at times, I often question myself later on.  Did I handle that situation appropriately?  Could I have better addressed that issue?  Knowing what to do and being prepared at all times removes questioning from the equation altogether.  Imagine if you never needed to wonder how to deal with that student or address that issue with your child.  Wouldn’t that be great?

Since life doesn’t, sadly enough, come with instructions, I find myself often wondering if what I’m doing in the classroom is effective.  Is one teaching strategy better than another?  Today in my STEM class, the students worked on their assigned math course.  My co-teacher conducted a mini-lesson for the students in the supportive group while I lead a mini-lesson for the students in the accelerated group.  After the mini-lesson, which lasted about 15 minutes, the students got right to work on their assigned homework.  The students in each of the two groups, huddled together to complete the homework.  I was a bit worried that they would simply copy off of each other, and so I monitored these groups closely.  As we have fostered a strong sense of collaboration and compassion in the sixth grade classroom, the students are great at supporting one another in appropriate ways.  The groups of students seemed to be effectively working together to accomplish the task.  They talked through each problem, mapped it out on the whiteboard tables, and answered each other’s questions.  When one student was confused, another student helped by explaining the process or problem to the student in a meaningful manner.  Each student in both groups seemed to really understand the skill covered in today’s mini-lesson.  It was quite amazing to see this form of effective collaboration in action.  Because the content covered for the accelerated group was a bit challenging as it dealt with word problems, I was worried that two of the students in that group would really struggle to complete the homework as they tend to take much time to process new concepts.  Instead, these students helped their group persevere through the challenging homework problems.  One student who I thought was about to get frustrated and walk away from his group, was in fact, having an a-ha moment and able to help his group solve the particular problem they were working on.  I was so impressed with my students and how they worked together in STEM class today.

I find that collaboration is a challenging skill to teach young students.  For me as a student, collaboration meant that the students next to you would copy from your paper and there was certainly no talking to each other.  Usually one person did all of the the work.  In our current global society, collaboration has taken on a new meaning.  It’s not about doing the work, it’s about talking, discussing, problem solving, and the group think mentality.  This can be difficult for students to understand, especially those from different cultures and academic backgrounds.  For some of our international students, copying is the appropriate way to accomplish certain tasks.  Helping students to learn a new way of collaborating is definitely tough, but very important.  Students need to understand how to support one another and help each other understand concepts and how to solve problems without one person doing all of the work.  As a teacher, I often wrestle with teaching collaboration and group work.  Should I allow the students to work together?  Are they really working together or is one person doing all of the work?  Is effective collaboration really happening?  As teachers, we need to observe and monitor our students.  Conferencing with them one-on-one to assess their understanding of concepts and skills also helps.  If we are teaching them the strategies needed to successfully understand how to work together and collaborate, and we monitor their progress throughout the year, then we will know whether or not they are truly and effectively collaborating and if it work for them.

What’s the Best Method for Teaching Math to Students?

I was a terrible math student in school.  Not only did I not like math class, but I didn’t understand the concepts covered.  I had great difficulty comprehending and processing what was being taught.  Regardless of how pointless I found every math concept ever covered, I just couldn’t wrap my mind around how to do math.  How do I find the LCD when adding fractions?  Which property is being used in this geometry problem?  How do I prove that a triangle has three sides?  Math seemed like a different language to me, which is strange because I had a much easier time learning how to speak Spanish.  So, what was my problem?  Was it how my teachers taught me?  Was it their instructional methods?  Did they not effectively teach me the math concepts?  Some of my math teachers utilized projects to help me see the relevance in what I was learning.  That I liked.  My seventh grade math teacher had us complete this cool project on accounting and money.  I had to maintain and update a checkbook, write checks, deposit money, and do all that fun banking stuff.  I remember that unit very well as my teacher made math seem fun.  Then came high school and it was all about bookwork, homework, solving problems, discussing the homework, and repeating the process day in and day out.  As I constantly struggled to understand the concepts covered, I quickly began to hate math.  If my teachers had utilized different instructional strategies when teaching me the content, would I still have felt the way I did?  Would math have been such a struggle for me?

It wasn’t until I became a teacher, that math started to make sense to me.  As I had to teach it to other people, I realized that I wanted to find a way to make math fun and engaging.  I wanted my students to see the relevance in the concepts covered.  I wanted my students to see math as a journey and not repetition.  Over the years, I’ve worked hard to maintain this mantra in my classroom.  Creating a STEM class a few years back helped remind me to be sure I was making math fun and engaging for my students.

Last year, I felt as though I struggled to do this.  While I tried to take the focus off of direct instruction and repetition, I found that I wasn’t effectively educating my students.  They were often confused by the time the chapter assessments rolled around as I hadn’t clarified their questions nor had they been given the time needed to practice the skills covered.  So, this year, I’ve been much more purposeful in my planning and instruction.  Each lesson includes a mini-lesson with time for the students to practice the problems and ask questions regarding the skill covered.  The boys then have at least 10-20 problems to complete on their own to show that they understand the concept covered and can apply it independently.  At the end of each unit, the students must complete a chapter assessment, to demonstrate their mastery of the skills covered throughout the unit.  Test retakes are completed by those students who struggle to accurately apply the skills covered.  This process has seemed to work so far this year.  I’ve also made use of several hands-on math activities, online games, and other projects throughout the year, to allow the students to see the relevance in the math skills covered as well as to help the students see math as fun and engaging.  I feel as though these instructional strategies used are working.  The students are faring much better on the chapter assessments and there is much less confusion regarding the math concepts covered.  However, I do wonder how much fun the boys are having in class regarding the math content.  Are they engaged?  Are they seeing the relevance in the concepts covered?  While they seemed to really like our unit on the Stock Market, did they see how the math skills covered throughout the year were applied?  Do they enjoy the mini-lessons?  Am I making the content seem fun?  Do they really understand the concepts covered?

As the end of this academic year is less than two months away, I feel compelled to ponder the effectiveness of my math instruction and curriculum.  Am I making the math skills covered relevant to the students?  Could I better implement the math skills into the STEM projects?  Could I make my mini-lessons more engaging?  Am I effectively preparing my students for the rigors of seventh grade math?  While I’m sure I could write an entire novel on this topic and all of my questions and thoughts regarding it, I feel as though I’ll never know the exact answer.  Perhaps I should ask my students.  Maybe, creating a survey on Google Forms with questions like the ones I’ve posed here will help me to elicit responses that will allow me truly reflect on my math instruction.  Yeah, that’s what I should do.  I’ll provide my students with the chance to provide me feedback on my math instruction.  What did they really think?  Was the math content presented in an engaging and relevant way?  Did they find it fun?  Did the concepts covered make sense?  I feel as though an activity like this will provide me with real, genuine data that I can use to plan my math instruction for next year.  How can I make the math instruction better for my students?  Although I think I know what might be best for my students, I don’t really know what works best for them.  By gathering data from my students, however, I will then truly begin to know what they think works best for them.  What a brilliant idea!  I can’t wait to learn what they really think about my effectiveness as a math teacher.

The Dangers of Independent Math Work

As a product of growing up in the 1980s, I’m surprised that I’m not more paranoid than I currently am.  It was a decade filled with horrors and dangers, or at least that’s what I was lead to believe.  My parents taught me not to talk to strangers as they just want to kidnap you, stay away from white vans as those are the vehicles kidnappers use, don’t use lick and stick tattoos as they are filled with LSD, and don’t eat unwrapped Halloween candy as it is filled with razor blades.  To this day, I still get chills when I see a white van.  Although nothing awful or atrocious ever happened to me or any of my friends or family members, the dangers were real, my parents would tell me.  These things could happen to me, I always thought, and so I lived my childhood and young adulthood in a constant state of fear.  Heck, even as an adult, I’m a very nervous Nelly, always thinking that the worst will happen.  The dangers are lurking just around the corner, I know it.

While I try to keep my crazy paranoia and worry out of the classroom, occasionally I see glimpses of happenings that do harken me back to my dangerous childhood.  Well, that might be a bit of an overstatement, but my nervous past does allow me the opportunity to plan ahead and foresee danger or other negative outcomes.  I’ve gotten very good at thinking through all of the problems that could arise from certain activities or lessons and so when I finalize lessons, units, or activities, they generally are free of the hiccups that some teachers run into in the classroom: Not enough time, too much time, students aren’t engaged, or classroom organization causes problems, to name a few.  Typically, planning for instruction in the classroom is my jam.  I love thinking about all of the what ifs and possibilities.  Being a bit of a worrisome individual helps me to think about all of the ways a lesson or activity could fail or go awry.

Therefore, when I planned my most recent STEM unit, I was very thoughtful in how I arranged the math component of the unit.  As I wanted to provide the students with a bit more choice and freedom in how they work and showcase their understanding of the math objectives covered, I created two options for how they could complete the math work in class.  After they completed a pretest at the start of the unit, they were placed into one of three tracks based on their performance on the pre-assessment.  From there, they could choose to participate in a mini-lesson taught by my co-teacher or I before beginning the assigned set of problems they would need to finish for homework.  During the mini-lesson, the concepts covered in the practice problems are explained, modeled, and reviewed.  The students also have the chance to ask my co-teacher or I any questions regarding what they will need to do for homework.  These mini-lessons range in time but usually last no more than 15-20 minutes in length.  Once the mini-lesson is finished, they return to their workspace in the classroom and start the homework.  If they need help or support while they work, they must ask two peers from their assigned group before seeking help from my co-teacher or I.  We utilized this same method of math instruction earlier in the year and so the students are very familiar with it.   Two to four students from the lower two math groups generally choose this option when working in STEM class on the math component of the unit.   The second option offers the students a bit more freedom and independence.  Rather than sitting through a mini-lesson that they might not need, those students who feel a bit more advanced when it comes to their math skills can choose to fly solo.  They do need to, however, watch a pertinent and relevant video resource and read the assigned introductory pages in their math textbook before beginning the assigned set of homework problems.  This way, they are sure to know and understand the skill they are practicing for homework.  If they have questions while they work, they may seek help from peers in their assigned math group.  We introduced this second option for the math component of this unit to prepare the students for the teaching styles of some of the seventh grade math teachers at our school.  They make use of a blended learning or flipped classroom approach to help the students better own their learning.

While this second option has been more engaging for the students who chose it and has allowed them to work at their own pace, it has also created some challenges that we saw first hand in the classroom today.  We begin every math work period with a check-in assessment regarding skills covered from the previous class period.  The students complete 5-10 problems that make use of the skill they had practiced in class the previous day.  It’s an easy way to formatively assess the students on their understanding of the math objectives covered.  What we found today is that those students who chose the more independent second option for working during the math work periods, struggled to answer questions regarding the specific math vocabulary terms covered.  While they could easily apply the skills learned to complete math problems, they could not define or explain the vocabulary terms.  The students who chose to participate in a mini-lesson prior to completing the homework problems, easily completed this portion of the assessment.

So, the question, of course, is, why did this happen?  Why were the students who were working independently unable to define the math vocabulary terms?  When I asked those struggling students, after they turned in their check-in assessment, if they had watched the assigned video or read the assigned pages in their math textbook before beginning the homework, they all responded, “No.”  Despite being able to simplify algebraic terms and expressions and solve linear equations, they could not explain why subtraction is different from addition or what the difference between consistent and inconsistent linear equations is.  They didn’t take the time needed to fully comprehend the skill and associated vocabulary terms.  While independent work definitely has its positive benefits, it also has a few drawbacks.  The students jump headfirst into solving problems rather than previewing sample problems or understanding the vocabulary words affiliated with the skill covered.

At the close of class today, I made sure to mention this incident to the class and asked them what could be done to prevent this outcome from happening again.  The funny part is, that they all seemed to know what they should do, but they just aren’t doing it.  Perhaps this teachable moment will help those students who choose to work independently to do so more thoroughly and carefully in the future.  I’m curious to see the results of our next check-in assessment.  Will they be able to define and explain the associated math vocabulary terms, or will they still have no clue because they rushed through the required foundation-building pre-work?

What Happens When You Rush a Mini-Lesson?

One of my least favorite things to do when I was a kid was cleaning my room.  I hated it.  I was fine living in squalor.  Bring on the dirty clothes and toys all over the floor.  I was fine with the mess, but apparently my parents were not okay with the plastic litter and chaos of my bedroom.  My parents believed that a bedroom should be a sanctuary and sanctuaries are supposed to be clean.  What if your sanctuary is a landfill though, how are you supposed to clean an actual dump?  While saying things like that only made my father angrier, it was fun to mess with my parents.  But, at the end of the day, I did have to clean my room.  So, I did.  I shoved everything into my closet and under my bed.  A few times, this method of cleaning got the thumbs up from my parents as they failed to look in my closet or under my bed.  One day, however, my mom saw something sticking out from under my bed, and this made her bend down to see what it was.  Like a ticking time bomb, the junk heap under my bed had been discovered.  My laziness only brought me more yelling and consequences.  After several years of this, I learned my lesson and thoroughly cleaned my room the proper way.  I realized that laziness was not the answer.  Trying to rush along the process only made matters worse.

While I find that I generally remember this little knowledge nugget from my youth on a regular basis, occasionally, I slip back into those bad habits.  Today was one of those days. I needed to leave STEM class early today for personal reasons.  Having known that for a few days, I planned what I thought would be a quick and easy mini-lessson that would allow the students to finish the period by working on the homework packet independently as my co-teacher remained in the room and answered any questions they had.  I had it all set and ready to go.  Then came the execution, which was where I went terribly wrong.  Because I had flipped my agenda around a bit to allow the students time to work with their partner on updating their portfolio on the Stock Market Game website, I only had about 20 minutes for my mini-lesson.  I thought for sure that would be enough time.  Boy, was I ever wrong.  I began the lesson by explaining the benefits and obligations for a company when they decide to go public and sell shares in their company.  This is where it all started to go wrong.  Instead of giving a brief overview of the reasons listed on the handout I had provided to the students, I had the students read the reasons aloud to the class.  I then stopped and explained or clarified each of the points, which was completely unnecessary as the written explanations said all that was needed to understand the point being made.  I then beat a dead horse by addressing questions raised by the students because of my overly specific explanation of each point.  While this portion of the mini-lesson was only supposed to take five minutes, it took me about 20 minutes to get through the handout.  At this point, I should have left the classroom, but I wanted to be sure the students understood the rest of the packet.  So, I had them peruse it to make sure they understood the remaining questions and activities.  This lead to more questions that were unnecessary had I simply provided them time to work and process what was being asked of them.  Instead, I answered their questions with more confusion.  I took one final question before I departed the classroom.  At this point, I knew I had totally botched the lesson, but had to leave.  I felt terrible.

Here’s what I should have done…  I should have began the mini-lesson by asking students why companies would want to go public and sell shares of their company on the stock market as we went over this in class on Monday.  This would have taken about two minutes to do.  I then should have briefly summarized the rest of the items on the handout, without reading them aloud.  This would have taken about another three minutes.  I then should have quickly explained the reading part of the worksheet packet by mentioning the objective on which their answers to the questions would be assessed.  I then could have spent the next 10 minutes solving some sample math problems from the rest of the worksheet packet with the whole class on the board.  This would have created more understanding and less confusion.  It would have also allowed the students time to process this new information.  I would have then had about two to three minutes to answer any final questions the students had before they got to work.  I then would have been able to leave on time.  Instead, I ended up leaving 15 minutes late because I tried to rush a mini-lesson.  While mini-lessons are intended to be short, they should also be clear and concise.  My mini-lesson ended up being long and laborious.  If I had put more deliberate thought into how the lesson should go prior to executing it, I might have been able to prevent the chaos that ensued in class today.  Trying to take the easy way out, only results in more work and consequences for all involved.  For my next mini-lesson, I plan on spending extra time preparing for it to be sure that I am covering the ideas and information in a clear and relevant way.  I want my students to learn and not be confused.  Luckily, my brain is much more developed now than it was when I was seven and so I am sure that I will learn from this mistake and be sure to never repeat it.