Posted in Change, Class Discussion, Current Events, Education, Humanities, Learning, Perspective, Sixth Grade, Students, Teaching

Getting Students to Think like Members of a Jury

Several years ago, I was called for jury duty.  At first I tried to get out of it because I didn’t want to miss time in the classroom with my students, but then I realized that I could use my experience on the jury in our mini-unit on 12 Angry Men.  I could share a real-life experience with my students to help them understand what goes on in a jury room while also getting them to understand the motivation of the eighth juror in the play.  So, I did it.  I was selected to hear a criminal case regarding domestic abuse charges involving adopted children.  Being the father of an adopted son, this case hit home for me.  While I did not allow my prior knowledge, emotions, and biases to cloud my judgment, I did use my background to better understand the case, the facts, and the law that was supposedly broken.  I listened carefully to the facts presented by both sides.  When the jury deliberated, we all agreed that the prosecution did not provide enough evidence to show that any abuse had taken place.  Although the mother of the children emotionally explained her side of the story, there was very little evidence to support it.  Without proof, we could not rule in favor of the plaintiff in this case.  We, as the jury, came back with a “not guilty” verdict based solely on the facts.  While it was hard to listen to the various pieces of testimony in this case, the facts drove our decision.  As a member of the jury, I had to keep an open mind and make my final vote because of what the facts and the laws told me.  It was not an easy case in which to be a part of, but I did my civic duty to the best of my ability based on what was right and just as well as the facts presented.

Freeing one’s mind of bias and possibly inaccurate prior knowledge can be quite difficult, but it is the only way to approach jury duty.  It’s also a great way to broaden one’s perspective when learning new things.  However, it’s also important not to forget what’s right and just as well.  While the facts are the facts and the law is the law, not all laws are right and just.  Helping my students see this fact as they develop a growth mindset in the classroom is crucial.  I try, each and every day, to remind my students of this very fact.  I want them to understand how important it is to look at the facts but to not forget about analyzing the equity of the facts and laws involved when learning new information and developing as a student, person, and thinker.  I want them to question everything.  It’s been especially important as we’ve been digging into the play 12 Angry Men by Reginald Rose.  I want the students to be able to understand the motivation of the eighth juror.  Why did he do what he did?  Why did he choose to stand alone in a room filled with 11 other men who all seemed to disagree with him?  Why did he take the time to explain his point of view and perspective to a generally close-minded group of individuals?  I want my students to see why Reginald Rose crafted this character the way he did.  The eighth juror calmly reviewed the facts of the case presented by both sides and helped the other jurors see the truth through the veil of their biases.  It is not an easy job for any of the men in the room, especially the eighth juror who has to deal with jurors yelling at him and accusing him of various things.  However, change comes about because of the facts of the case and the courage involved in helping others to see what is right and just.

To help my students practice this same skill employed by members of a jury, I found a current event involving a court case to discuss in class.  The case I used involved the Dakota Access Pipeline and the Native American groups trying to prevent it from going through their land.  As we had already introduced this topic to the boys back in December, they had prior knowledge of the case.  To begin our discussion, I had the students review what the issue was all about.  I then had the students state their opinion and thoughts on the issue.  Which side is “right?”  We then discussed the court case that is still awaiting a final verdict from the judge.  I had the students ask clarifying questions and share their thoughts on the case.  Following this short discussion, I then explained to the students that in order to discuss this current event and the case like members of a jury, they need to free themselves of their judgements and preconceived notions.  They need to look solely at the facts of the case.  So, I handed the students a written explanation of the Trust Responsibility principle used by the Supreme Court to handle issues involving Native American groups and their dealings with the United States of America.  We looked at the part that explained how most tribal land is still controlled by the American government despite the fact that the native groups have sovereignty within the boundaries of the reservations.  I explained to the students how the judge in the case might be using this portion of the principle to make his final decision in the case, which is due this coming week.  While the students seemed to understand the law and what it stated, they were outraged by it.  “The Native Americans were here first.  They are the only true Americans.  We are all immigrants and Europeans.  Why are we controlling their land?  How is that fair?” one student asked.  Another student responded, “This law is unjust and not right.  Why does it seem that nobody cares about this issue?”  My students were angry, like the men in our play.  They were upset with the facts of the case.  We had an amazing discussion.  The students were using examples from history to support their claims as they discussed this case and the issue at hand.  I was so impressed with how insightful and compassionate my students were being.  Even though they understood the law and know that the judge has to rule with the law in mind, they were discussing the facts of the case and how unjust this whole case seems.  I closed this discussion by praising the students for their phenomenal critical thinking.  I told them, “One of the main reasons we discuss current events like this is to make you angry while also empowering you to want to make a difference.  We want you to see how unjust some things in this world can be so that you will want to bring about change within the world.  Perhaps one of you will go onto become a lawyer and fight for the people like these Native American groups who can’t always fight for themselves.”  The students seemed enthralled and motivated.  I can’t wait to see how they change the world in the coming years.

Getting my students to think like members of a jury while also getting them riled up helped them to understand the web Reginald Rose created in his play.  I wanted them to see how difficult it can be to “see” the facts through the haze of issues, biases, and fairness.  What is right isn’t always the law and what is the law isn’t always just.  I want my students to see and understand this concept as we work through this amazing piece of literature created during a turbulent time in American history, just as we seem to be living during another tumultuous time in our country’s history.  Being able to think like a juror while not forgetting everything else is the key to developing a true growth mindset and becoming a changemaker in our world.

Posted in Class Discussion, Current Events, Education, New Ideas, Professional Development, Students, Teaching, Trying Something New

The Benefits of a Silent Discussion

In early November, I attended the New Hampshire Council for the Social Studies annual conference in Manchester.  It was a wonderful day filled with useful workshops and great discussions with colleagues.  I learned a lot that day; however, one of the most valuable nuggets of knowledge I learned was the silent discussion.  What is a silent, discussion you ask?  How can a discussion be silent, you’re probably thinking to yourself?  A silent discussion is much like a round-robin writing activity.  The students respond, in writing, to a guiding question regarding a discussion topic.  They discuss the topic in writing for a given amount of time.  Then, the students pass their papers onto another student, read what the previous student read on this new paper, and then add to the current discussion started by the previous student.  It allows those quiet and shy students a better chance to get involved in the discussion and showcase their learning.  This idea seemed cool to me at the time.  I thought I might try it in my classroom.  Perhaps, I thought, it might allow some of my ESL students more processing time and thus, better allow them to demonstrate their ability to meet the class discussion objective.

So, this past Saturday, during our final Humanities class prior to Thanksgiving Break, I had my students participate in a silent discussion as a way to discuss a current event I introduced to the boys.  Usually, on Saturdays in class, we discuss a current event topic in small groups.  While this has been effective for most students, some of the boys haven’t been as involved as I feel their potential shows.  Perhaps they are nervous or shy or maybe they need time to think before sharing their ideas.  Why not try something new, I thought to myself?  Our topic was President-elect Donald Trump’s plan for education.  We read an article from Newsela together as a class.  I clarified a few points that I thought might be confusing for our ESL students, but did not allow for questions during this time as I wanted them to save their thoughts and ideas for the silent discussion.  Our guiding question was, Should President-Elect Donald Trump focus on School Choice and Vouchers or the Public School System in America when he takes office in January?  After handing out paper to each student, the boys got right to work.  Many of the students vigorously etched onto their paper for about two minutes while one or two students struggled to write more than a few words.  Perhaps they were taken by surprise with the short time limit and those students who wrote very little would write more following the first switch, I thought.  Then they passed their papers onto the next student, read what was there, and had two more minutes to add to the discussion.  Almost every student seemed more focused during this second chunk of writing time.  I was impressed.  Then, they switched one final time to add to one more discussion.  When time ended on the last writing period, the boys started switching their papers again as they wanted to keep going.  They seemed to like this silent discussion method, I thought.  Yah!

I wrapped up class by reading a few of the discussions aloud.  They were pretty darn good.  I was impressed.  The students used examples from the article and their own ideas to take a stance on the issue of education in our country.  Wow!  I shared these thoughts with the boys before I asked for their feedback on this method of discussing a topic.  What did you think of this way of discussing current events compared to a whole group or small group oral discussion?  Most of the boys seemed to like all three methods equally, but one or two students did like this method of a silent discussion better because they felt as though they had the opportunity to genuinely share their thoughts with others.  They did wish we had more time to switch with every student so that the discussions could have grown into something greater though.  No one seemed to think that the oral method of discussing a topic was better than the silent discussion strategy.  Nice!  I might use this again later in the year when there is more time to really dig into our discussion topic.

I found this silent discussion method beneficial for almost every student.  Most of the ESL students in my class seemed to like this method better because they felt like they had time to collect their thoughts and write.  My weakest ESL student still struggled to convey any sort of coherent ideas or thoughts on this topic, much as he has done during previous small group oral discussions.  He doesn’t seem to be understanding the conversation or ideas on a level that makes sense to him or his peers.  The ideas he jotted down on paper were basic and just reiterating what was already discussed by the previous student.  I was hoping that this method of discussion would help him as he felt that he wasn’t able to jump into the small group discussions in the past weeks because he felt like everyone was hogging the conversation.  Despite having two solid minutes to add to the discussion in writing, he failed to showcase any sort of learning or understanding.  This student’s issues are much greater than just not being able to add his insight to a class discussion.  Overall though, this silent method of discussing a current event topic proved beneficial to my class.  I send a shout-out to the professor from Plymouth State University who shared this idea with me and others. Thanks for the idea and support.  #yahforteachersharing

Posted in Class Discussion, Current Events, Education, Humanities, Perspective, Teaching

Helping Students Think Critically About Global Issues

I remember being passionate about certain issues when I was in high school.  I used to read the local newspaper in my town, The Valley News, each morning before heading off to school.  While it wasn’t the world’s best publication by any means, it gave me fodder for thinking.  It allowed me to stay current with what was happening around the world, and it also helped me to think critically about important issues that matter to all people.  It was during this time that I took an interest in politics and the government.  I started forming opinions on certain issues that were being debated in Congress.  It felt good to stay informed and educated.  I felt like I knew what was going on.  Knowledge is power, after all.  It felt good to be in the know as well as to ponder meaningful ideas such as our two-party system and partisanship.  Sometimes I wondered how much more productive our country’s government would be if we eradicated our two-party system and went to a multi-party system that was more about the issues than a set of predetermined characteristics.  Being informed on current events and having the ability to think critically about the information is not only fun but vital to my role as an effective global citizen.

To help my students learn to live meaningful lives in a global society, we discuss current events on a weekly basis.  I challenge my students to stay abreast with what’s happening around the world during the week so that they can ace the New York Time’s weekly news quiz we compete in class each Saturday.  Some of the questions asked are quite challenging, but inevitably, each and every week, a few of the boys know the answers as they followed the news throughout the week.  That is always so exciting.  However, my favorite part of our current events activity is the class discussion.  I love allowing the students to debate and argue a guiding question based on a recent news event.  Last week, we discussed the legality and ethics of taking voting booth selfies.  The students were so engaged in the discussion that it was sad to have to end it when class came to a close.  They all had such insightful thoughts and opinions on the topic.

Another way I’ve been able to help my students think critically about issues that should matter to them as students and citizens, is through our current Humanities unit on the American Presidential Election Process.  Not only are we discussing the current state of affairs in our country regarding a pivotal moment in history, we are also engaging in a discussion of our world and how it works.  What matters to us as people?  What big ideas should we care about and why?  I want to empower my students to care about the world around them so that they want to bring about change and make a difference for the betterment of society.  I tell them time and time again my favorite Ani Difranco quote, “If you’re not angry, you’re not paying attention.”  I want them to have heated debates in class regarding important issues and topics.

Today in class, we began an activity in which they started learning about major election issues including gun control, the refugee crisis, and healthcare.  The boys chose a topic of interest to them and started reading articles regarding their self-chosen topic on the wonderful website Newsela.  As they read an article, they completed a Guiding Questions worksheet to help them identify the main idea of the article while also reflecting on how their perspective is changing regarding the issue.  The students seemed quite enthralled by this activity.  They were engaged in the articles and had some phenomenally insightful responses on their worksheets.  As I observed the students working today, I paused to ask them follow-up questions regarding what they were learning.  Why should people under the age of 18 not be allowed to handle or use guns?  Why are foster kids not allowed to keep their medicaid coverage if they move to a different state?  Why is the Afghanistan conflict bad for our country?  I was amazed by how my students responded.  They thought critically about the questions I asked them and responded carefully and thoughtfully.  It was so much fun to discuss big issues and ideas with my students.  I felt like a professor in a college course.  My boys seemed to really care about what they were learning about.  For some of them, they were learning this new information for the first time. They were beginning to form opinions and thoughts on global issues relevant to all people.  They were curious and critical thinkers.  It was so much fun to watch them learn, question, grow, and think about the world around them as they journey towards becoming effective global citizens.

Helping students to think critically about vital issues and topics concerning all people is crucial in our world today.  If we want our students to go onto live meaningful lives in our world as leaders, then they need to understand how the world works and how major issues impact people.  Teaching our students to care about global and national issues should be a high priority for all educators.  While we want our students to understand current happenings in the world, we also want them to be able to think critically about them to formulate opinions and plans on how to address the issues.  Having students learn about and reflect on major issues impacting our world is one easy way to foster a sense of global curiosity within them.

Posted in Class Discussion, Co-Teacher, Current Events, Education, Humanities, Teaching

Finding the Success in a Flop

As teachers, we crave those teachable moments; the times in the classroom where students do or say something that allows for a big idea or social concept to be discussed in a meaningful manner.  Those moments are amazing.  Who doesn’t love when magic happens unexpectedly?  It’s like that time when the Titanic missed the iceberg by centimeters, saving everyone.  Yes, I know that didn’t really happen.  But wouldn’t it have been so cool if it had.  Then we wouldn’t have had to sit through three hours of Leonardo diCaprio sweating and trying to be king of no one’s world.  I would have really liked it had the Titanic not sank.  But, it did and since the time machine is still being kept secret in Area 51, the Titanic will have to stay sunk, for now.  While I veered a bit off course, which is what the Titanic should have done when they saw the iceberg, my point is that when serendipitous, unexpected moments occur in the classroom, teachers enjoy seizing those moments and making the most of the opportunities presented.  But, what if, as the teacher, you didn’t even know the unexpected had happened in class?  What if you thought that what was actually amazing and wonderful was a failure?  What if you couldn’t see the forest from the trees?  Did it really happen?  Is it possible?

I proved that sometimes even the teacher can be unaware of greatness happening right before his or her very eyes.  Today in Humanities class, the students discussed current events, as we do every Saturday.  We began the period with some pair-sharing.  The students shared, what they had learned about regarding the current event read for homework, with their table partner.  They asked each other questions and had some interesting conversations.  I was impressed by the varying articles the students read.  Only one or two of the boys had chosen the same current event to read about.  How cool.  Then it was my time to introduce the class current event that the students would then discuss in small groups based on a guiding question.  Usually, we read, as a class, a current event together, discussing the big Ws: Who, what, when, where, and why.  This process only leaves about 8-10 minutes for small group discussions.  While the chats are filled with unique questions and poignant thoughts, they are not lengthy enough for the students to really delve into the guiding question in a meaningful way.  So, today I decided to switch things up a bit.  After handing out the current event article, instead of reading through it together as a class, I explained the main idea to the students before allowing them to ask any clarifying questions.  The boys asked a few questions that I quickly addressed.  Then, I introduced the guiding question and sent the students into their groups to discuss.  They had over 15 minutes to really get into the conversation.  Although the groups had interesting and insightful discussions filled with brilliant ideas about how to prevent future water crises like the one in Flint, Michigan from happening, I felt as though my introduction had flopped.  It felt flat.  Rather than allowing the students to ask questions and figure out the current event, I filled in the holes.  I did all of the thinking for them.  I stole their ability to solve problems from them and they didn’t even realize it.  I felt awful.  I did not like how it all went down.

So, I of course, sought feedback from my co-teacher.  What did you think about my introduction to the current event?  I was completely surprised by her response.  “While I like the way we have done the current event introduction in the past by reading and discussing the article together as a class, it takes such a long time that the boys don’t have enough time to get into conversations in their small groups.  Plus, they usually have trouble synthesizing the information in the article in order to critically think about the guiding question.  Because you gave them the main idea and allowed them to clarify their knowledge of the topic, they were able to have much more involved and meaningful conversations.  I thought it was great.”  What?  Were we in the same classroom?  Was she observing what actually happened or had she fallen asleep during my chat with the class?  How is it that our perceptions of what happened were completely different?  I felt as though I took away from the students by explaining the main ideas to them, but she thought it helped them have deeper discussions.  I guess that makes sense, but it still felt stale to me.  I didn’t like how I had explained the event to the boys.  It felt rough and awkward.  I didn’t ask them any questions.  Were they really engaged?  They seemed to understand the topic and did ask insightful, clarifying questions, but that didn’t matter to me.

The question that still remains for me is, whose perception was the reality?  Was my current event introduction really a flop or was my co-teacher right and my lesson was actually effective?  And, how would I know if I was right or wrong?  Was my flop really a success?  Sometimes, beauty is in the eye of the beholder, or so I’ve heard.  In this case, who was the true beholder?  Was my lesson a flop or a success?

Posted in Current Events, Education, Humanities, Praise, Sixth Grade, Teaching

Celebrating Growth and Progress in the Classroom

In the third grade, my teacher gave us weekly spelling tests.  Those students who received a perfect score of a 100% found a special sticker, usually a scratch-and-sniff one, at the top of their paper when it was returned the next week.  That was a huge highlight for me.  I put forth great effort on a weekly basis to receive one of those stickers.  It wasn’t about learning how to spell words, it was all about the celebration and sticker.  My teacher did very little else in the classroom to celebrate growth and progress.  Those stickers were one of the only ways I was able to feel as though I had accomplished something.  I felt good about myself as a student because of those stickers.  In retrospect, it seems quite silly that I found such happiness in those smelly pieces of sticker paper, but I did.

As a teacher, I want my students to feel celebrated and supported in their learning process throughout the year.  I don’t want them to long for stickers or silly rewards.  I want them to be able to see their growth as students and be pleased and proud of themselves.  I want them to continue to work and develop their habits of learning throughout the year because they want to grow as students and not because they earn special prizes or stickers.  I try to consistently provide my students with relevant and meaningful feedback and praise on their learning process and effort throughout the year.  I want the boys to see themselves as I do, growing and developing students.

Today in Humanities class, the boys participated in various small group discussions regarding current events.  The students shared the news worthy events they had read about for homework with their table partner.  They explained the big ideas regarding their self-chosen articles and events.  My co-teacher then shared one relevant current event topic with the class to provide them with fodder for the small group discussion they would be participating in towards the end of class.  The boys learned about how Cam Newton, quarterback for the Carolina Panthers, wants the media and others to stop making a big deal of the fact that he is a black quarterback.  He wants to be referred to as just a quarterback as he feels race is not a factor in his ability to play at the quarterback position.  After the students understood the who, what, when, where, and why of the issue, the boys were placed into small groups with four other students to discuss the issue using a guiding question to focus the discussion: Does the race of an athlete impact his or her ability to play a sport or position on a team?  The boys did a tremendous job exploring how race is used to judge athletes and the negative outcomes of doing so.  I’m constantly amazed by the critical thinking our students put forth to discuss the issue of the day in an insightful and meaningful manner.  They build upon each other’s comments and questions, use support from the text studied or referenced, and include others in the conversation.  It’s quite an amazing sight to behold.

However, the big win for me today was in celebrating one particular student’s growth and progress.  Prior to today’s conversation, this one specific student struggled to effectively participate in group discussions of any kind.  He generally hogged the conversation, not allowing others to contribute or participate.  He sometimes had trouble compassionately arguing with his peers.  Rather than citing evidence or support to make his claim or argument, he sometimes used words that lacked forethought or respect.  He had not been able to meet this one objective all year, until today.  He was focused and deliberate in his actions and participation.  He made sure to only participate in the discussion when appropriate, allowing his peers to also be included in the discussion.  What he did add to the discussion moved it forward in interesting directions.  His body language sent positive messages to his group members and showed respect and compassion.  He was like a different student in class today.  I made sure to take him aside after the discussion and praise his effort and actions.  He nicely demonstrated his ability to meet the objective and did so with grace and glory.  He added fine insight to the discussion in meaningful ways.  He was an active and appropriate discussion participant today because of his effort and restraint.  I made sure to tell him how proud of him I was.  He smiled and seemed to really hear the words I was saying.  It was amazing.  It’s moments like these that make those other more difficult classroom experiences all worth it.

While we certainly don’t want to over praise students or celebrate them for just being students, it’s also important to remember the value in specific and meaningful praise.  Students who are able to grow and develop in order to overcome challenges in the classroom need to be recognized and celebrated.  Not with a sticker or big fan fare in front of the class, but with personal and private conversations and words of praise.  When these students reap the benefits of their hard work, they will see the value in utilizing feedback provided by their teachers and peers in order to mature and grow.  This is crucial to the learning process.  Students need to see that their effort has positive consequences so that they will want to keep trying and working hard.  Recognizing and celebrating the successes of our students breeds more success, happiness, and a sense of well-being within them.  The more we can take notice of their growth and progress in and out of the classroom, the more they will want to grow and progress as students and learners.

Posted in Class Discussion, Current Events

Engaging Students in a Current Events Discussion

Growing up, my parents subscribed to the local newspaper in my town.  So, every morning, I had something to read while I enjoyed a tasty breakfast of Lucky Charms and orange Juice.  In high school, this habit helped me stay on top of current events in my world.  I knew a little about what was happening outside of my sphere of influence.  This made me more empathetic to others and self-aware of the world.  I was interested in politics and cared about what happened in the world.  While I don’t read the newspaper every day anymore, I do try to stay abreast of news happening around the world.  It allows me to facilitate discussions amongst my colleagues and students, as well as be informed.

My students, on the other side of the spectrum, care very little about current events and the world around them.  They are still so self-absorbed that if it doesn’t directly affect them, they don’t seem to care.  My goal as their teacher is to change that.  I need to prepare them to live meaningful lives in a global society.  Part of this means being aware of the world around them.  So, each week in Humanities class, we discuss current events.  The students read about various, engaging current events for homework and then we have different types of discussions about what they learned in class the next day.  While many of the boys read about topics that interest them, they sometimes miss the big subjects or events.  So, to be sure they cover what we feel they need to know and be aware of, we, as their teachers, also discuss one or two events as a whole class.

Over the years, we’ve tried different ways to engage the students in discussions about current events.  We’ve tried the whole class discussion model, which works for some but not all of the students.  Plus, staying focused for 30 minutes in a whole group setting is quite challenging, even for adults.  So, we try to keep the whole class discussion to no more than 10 minutes in length.  Then we tried having them meet in small groups to discuss pre-selected current event topics.  This can work if all of the participants are focused and interested.  That’s not always the case.  So then we tried providing the students a broad guiding question to discuss in small groups.  For example, how does your current event affect the world around us?  This seemed to foster better conversations, but was by no means the perfect solution.  Is there a better way to engage the students in a discussion regarding current events?

In Humanities class yesterday, we tried something a bit different.  We had the students share what they learned from reading about current events the previous night with their table partner.  This kept most of the students focused.  We had this go on for about five minutes.  Then, we brought them back together as a whole group and generated a list of possible small group discussion topics.  The boys created three groups.  We then had the students split into one of the three groups.  They could choose which one they went to.  Most of the groups struggled to stay on task.  One group was composed of two students, both of whom had not read about the topic but were interested in it.  So, they hypothesized about the topic.  This lead to them acting out epic battle scenes.  Clearly, not effective, albeit fun for them.  The other two groups included conversations and discussions lead by only two of the group members.  The other students sat, doing nothing.  Were they even listening?  They certainly didn’t seem engaged.  So, after about eight minutes, we brought the class back together and discussed noticings.  What did you see happen in your group?  Was it productive?  One student pointed out some of the flaws he saw in his group while another student raved about how much he liked the discussion group he was in.  My co-teacher and I provided the students with feedback on what we noticed to help them learn from their mistakes and improve for next weekend.

While this lesson was certainly not a disaster, it made us realize that we need to rethink how we discuss current events in class.  There are clearly more effective ways to do this.  What about giving the students one of three articles to read on Friday night and then break them up into groups based on the current event they read about?  This would give them a chance to be educated on the topic they are discussing.  It would also give them a shared text from which to pull.  I like this idea.  Or, what about giving them a news focus each week.  Next week they could read about national news from America.  Then we could have a full class discussion on the state of affairs in America.  We could even break up into smaller groups based on subtopics such as politics, government, military, etc.  This too is a great idea.  Wow, I’m full of brilliant ideas today.  It must be the sun and tasty coffee I’m drinking.  So, I have some fodder for next week.  I’ll bring my new ideas to the discussion table with my co-teacher and see what we come up with for next Saturday.  I’m excited about the prospects.  Our students need to be aware of what’s going on in the world outside our little school bubble.  But, doing it in an engaging manner is vital to the weight and value it carries  for our students.