Helping Students Learn How to be Professional Adults

While I’m in the midst of my school’s March Break vacation, I’m stuck here on my couch recovering from the flu.  Yes, that’s right.  Despite all of my incessant handwashing, healthy eating habits, and attempts to stay hydrated over the past week as the flu epidemic hit my school prior to our vacation, I fell victim to the flu virus.  Being sick is no picnic, but it’s allowed me the opportunity to reflect on my teaching and life: I’m so blessed to have an amazing wife who is helping nurse me back to health, despite my sometimes negative demeanor towards her; I am lucky to have a talented son who is putting forth great effort to achieve his goals even when life gets complicated; I am fortunate to work at a school filled with dedicated and committed colleagues who truly care about the students; I am inspired daily by my sixth grade class that is overflowing with young men who strive for excellence in life and academics.   Although my throat is still quite sore and I’m so congested that I can barely hear the beeping of the microwave oven, I’m feeling mentally amazing.  Life is Beautiful, is not just the name of an Oscar-winning movie, oh no.  It’s also my mantra that keeps me going.  While the great weather prognosticators of our time have predicted a huge snowstorm for the New England area tomorrow and Thursday, the weather outside gives no indication of this impending doom.  It’s sunny and beautiful outside, just as it was in my classroom Saturday morning, on the final day of classes before the big March Break.

As my body was in the beginning stages of breaking down from the flu virus on Saturday morning, my mental facilities were fully intact as my students participated in the Learning Exposition that took place in our classroom.  The boys had been preparing and planning for this since early February.  They chose their topics, became experts on them, and then created engaging and informative presentations to convey what they learned to others.  I crafted this project as a way to engage my students in our unit of study, Africa, review some of the foundational study skills introduced to the students earlier in the academic year, and to help prepare them for meaningful lives in a global society.  While I want my students to enjoy what we are learning and doing in the classroom, I also want my students to understand how to be professional, engage in complex and serious conversations, field difficult questions, and prepare for the unknown.  The research project that the students completed in my Humanities class forced them to create an engaging visual aide, know their self-selected topic as well as they know how to play their favorite video game, and then share what they learned and know with others in a real-world manner.  They dressed for success and presented their knowledge learned to other teachers from our school.  This was a challenge for some of the students as they have never had to complete a task like this before.  Some of my students come from schools where this was not an assessed skill, and so they were very nervous and anxious about having to do it.  As the real-world demands that all people tackle problems and solve them, I want to be sure that my students know how to do so in appropriate, creative, and professional ways.  While sixth grade boys are far from professional adults, they need to learn what professional looks and feels like so that they can one day be ready to live meaningful and professional lives.

This project allowed my students to learn how to solve problems regarding topics that engaged them.  As they researched their topics, some of them ran into roadblocks such as not enough information or lack of interest.  I helped my students troubleshoot these issues as they occurred.  Some students ran into different types of problems that seemed very advantageous such as too much information or interest in another aspect of the topic.  The students learned how to navigate this crazy world of research.  They then had to prepare a meaningful way to showcase or “publish” their knowledge.  This was probably the most important yet most difficult part of the entire project for the students.  While some of them wanted to take the easy way out by creating a slideshow presentation, I challenged them to think about their topics.  Is a slideshow the best tool for you to convey the information learned in a meaningful way?  For most students, this forced them to step outside of their comfort zone and take a risk.  They tried new things and put together relevant presentations.  Although this challenging task proved difficult for all of the students, they preserved, devised innovative and unique solutions to their problems, employed a growth mindset, and got the job done.  Saturday’s Learning Exposition was a remarkable success.  The students nicely highlighted their learning and ability to be professional as they shared what they learned with other teachers and faculty members.  The teachers in attendance were amazed by the quality of the student presentations.  The boys knew their topics very well and shared what they learned in engaging ways.

While my students are far from joining the workforce and going off into the real-world any time soon, I do need be sure they are aptly prepared for their future before tomorrow becomes today.  Helping students learn how to address adults professionally, convey their thoughts in meaningful and relevant ways, and share what they learned in engaging ways, is simply one way I can be sure my students will be well-equipped to live meaningful lives in a global society upon completion of their academic careers.  Projects like the one we just completed allow students the chance to practice what it’s like to be an adult who is in charge.  As I told them, they were the teachers in the classroom on Saturday.  They were the adults who had to navigate the sometimes uneasy waters of life.  What if your computer malfunctions?  What if someone asks a question you can’t answer?  What if the unexpected happens?  This unique and special experience the students went through in my Humanities class over the past three weeks allowed them to think like an adult and be prepared to tackle real-world problems.  It was awe-inspiring to watch my students talk to my fellow colleagues in exciting and professional ways.  They were polite and in charge.  Mission, accomplished.

As my body begins to heal itself with the aid of modern medicine, I’m left pondering all the beauty that life has to offer.  How did I get to be so lucky?  How is it that I am able to work with such a fine class of sixth grade boys who are constantly growing and developing on a daily basis?  I’ll chock it up to good Karma.  Yeah, that’s it.


Why I Love Teaching: Part 732

I love challenging students to think creatively and critically.  I love observing students as they overcome difficulties and solve problems in new and unique ways.  I love watching students grow and develop.  I love being a teacher.  I love the hard days as much as the great ones.  I love working with students and colleagues as we work together to change the world and make it a better place for all people.

My Humanities class today provided me with yet another reason why I love teaching.  As the boys worked on finalizing their Africa Project presentations in class today, I walked around and observed.  I occasionally fielded questions, but mostly just provided the students with feedback on their work.  What impressed me the most, aside from the great focus and dedication on the part of the students, was their diligent work ethic and ownership.  The students weren’t okay with just finishing their presentation, oh no.  They wanted to make their poster, slideshow, or website, the best it could possibly be.

I had students ask me:

  • “Can I draw a ski lift going up my poster towards a mountain peak and then add in skiers to give my poster some color and creativity?”
  • “Can I talk to the drama teacher to get a costume for my presentation?”
  • “Can I make a quiz to go along with my presentation to make sure people are listening and learning?”
  • “Can I add a Google Maps portion to my presentation so that people can see where the battles happened?”

I was so proud of their self-awareness and ability to use a growth mindset while working.  They weren’t simply working to get things done, they were working to create the best final project possible.  Those students who didn’t necessarily know what to do to improve their presentation, asked for feedback from me.  They wanted suggestions or ideas on what they could do to make their visual aides even more meaningful and engaging.  After I provided them with some ideas and possible solutions, they got right to work revising their project presentations.  I was amazed.  They want to be sure that they WOW! the faculty members attending tomorrow’s Learning Exposition.  It’s not about checking things off of a list for almost all of my students; it’s about showcasing their learning and talents.  “Look at what I know, learned, and can do,” their presentations will be shouting tomorrow during the big event.

At the close of today’s work period, I shared these noticings with the class.  As I talked to them about their phenomenal work ethic and effort, my body shivered in excitement and joy.  My students have come so far since September and I am so proud of each and every one of them.  It’s on days like today that I’m able to celebrate this growth and progress with them as a class.  And this is yet another reason why I love teaching.

Is More Feedback Better for Students or Overwhelming?

As a teacher, I crave feedback from my colleagues and students.  How am I doing in the classroom?  Am I an effective teacher?  Do I engage my students well?  Are my students having fun?  Am I effectively assessing and grading my students?  Am I a good role model?  In order to grow and develop as an educator, I need to know how I’m doing and areas in need of improvement.  I can’t get better in the classroom if I don’t know on what I need to work.  While I do tend to be a harsh critic of myself, one perspective and opinion is certainly not enough information for me to meaningfully change and improve.  I need my fellow teachers and students to tell me what I can do better.  Feedback is essential for me to be the best teacher possible for my students.

As research and my students have told me over the years, they too crave and need feedback from others in order to grow and develop.  They can’t work towards meeting or exceeding objectives covered if they don’t know on what they need to work.  So, I make it a goal of mine as a teacher to be constantly providing my students with feedback on their work, effort, and behavior.  Usually this feedback comes in the form of comments on the grading portal my school uses.  When I asses work that is being objectively graded, I enter a grade along with specific feedback that the students can use to improve.  As my students always have the ability to redo most tasks and assignments, the comments and feedback with which I provide them allows them to know exactly what they need to do to revise their work in order to meet or exceed the graded objectives.  I also provide my students with oral feedback periodically throughout the day, week, year, and term.  Sometimes this feedback process happens during one-on-one conferences or sometimes informally.  I want my students to see that I not only care about them and want to keep them safe, but I know them as people, learners, and individuals.  I know their strengths and challenges.  When I am able to provide my students with feedback orally and in person, we are able to engage in a dialogue.  They can ask me questions about their progress in the class, and I am able to give them concrete strategies that they can use to improve.  This constant feedback helps my students make much progress over the course of the year in my sixth grade class.  They use this feedback to reflect on their work and progress and set goals to grow and improve.  My students truly know themselves as students, learners, and people in my classroom because of this cycle of feedback and reflection.  Talk about self-awareness and metacognition.  Wow!

This week, I also began piloting yet another feedback method for my students.  I enter daily effort grades into the grading system my school uses along with comments regarding the in-class effort of each student.  This way, my students are able to see, on a regular basis how they are progressing in the sixth grade regarding their in-class behavior and effort.  This daily feedback also helps the boys align their perception with the reality.  So far, it seems to be making a huge difference in the classroom.  The students are engaging me in conversations about their effort and performance in class.  While most students know what they need to do to improve tomorrow, some of the boys need more specific strategies and insight on what they can do to grow as students.  I love that this feedback and daily effort grade is eliciting these types of conversations, as they allow the students to own their work and progress.  I’ve also seen much change and improvement in the students since I enacted this new grading protocol, as they check their grades and comments daily.  They are learning from their mistakes and getting progressively better each day.  Students who struggled to stay focused in class on Monday, were much more attentive and on-task during class on Tuesday.  Students who didn’t help their classmates clean up at the end of the period on Tuesday, made sure to do just that today in class.  The boys are reading this informal feedback and using it to grow and develop as sixth grade students.  It’s quite amazing.

Although I’ve observed how effective meaningful feedback is for our students to improve and grow in and out of the classroom, I wonder if my control group is an anomaly.  Is more feedback truly better for most, if not all, students?  Or, does feedback negatively impact the performance of some students?  Do some students not like to know how they are progressing academically?  While I’d like to think not, I haven’t asked every student in the world this question.  Perhaps more feedback can be harmful to some students, but I would argue that that’s just not the case.  When people know and understand their strengths and what they need to do to improve regarding their areas of weakness, they are able to improve or work towards improving.  So, until I learn that feedback hinders the growth process for my students, I’m going to provide them with as much formative and summative feedback as possible.  The more they learn about themselves, the more they will be able to develop and improve as students, thinkers, learners, and problem solvers.

Being Okay with Throwing a Firecracker out Your Window

You know when you plan for something to go a certain way and it goes in a completely different direction?  It doesn’t feel very good, but it teaches us a lesson.  We can learn from our experiences, just like my friend did many years ago…

It was a very warm summer night in western Massachusetts.  My best friend from college and I were driving around in my parents car.  We had the metal music blasting and were having the time of our lives.  As the breeze from outside the car felt good against our warm skin, we would occasionally put the windows down until the humidity became unbearable.  Summers in New England can be quite unpleasant.  When the moist air became too much for us to handle, we’d close the windows and put on the air conditioning.  That felt great.

So, there we are, two crazy college kids driving on some road in Massachusetts in the middle of the night, when Tom pulls out a firecracker.  He said, “We should totally light this and throw it out the window.”

My response was uninformed and ignorant.  If only I knew then what I know now.  Hindsight is 20/20.  I said, “That sounds like a marvelous idea.  Do it!”

So, as I drove, he lit the firecracker.  As it started to spark and make that noise that firecrackers do, I felt a bit uneasy.  An open flame was really close to me and a whole lot of gasoline.  Maybe this wasn’t such a good idea I thought.  And that’s when everything went wrong.

My friend quickly chucked it out the window.  Well, he tried to throw it out the window anyway, but as we had just recently shut the windows to turn on the AC, when he went to flick the firecracker out the window, his hand slammed against the glass window, causing the lit firecracker to fall into his lap, on the seat of my parent’s car.  We both freaked out and didn’t know what to do.  We froze and waited for the inevitable explosion.  If you’ve ever been within a foot of a firecracker when it explodes, you know how loud the noise can be.  It was horrifying.  The firecracker exploded, inches from my friend’s thighs.  We both screamed, loudly, as I tried to steer the car straight.  Luckily, other than our ears and the small black hole burned into the seat of my parent’s car, there were no serious injuries.  Although, in the moment, we were scared still, after, we laughed about it and learned a valuable lesson: Make sure your window is down if you are going to throw a lit firecracker out of it.

Like my friend learned on that fateful night in July, even the best laid plans can go awry.  As a teacher, I love trying new things and taking risks in the classroom.  I enjoy tackling new projects and lessons to help inspire and engage my students in the process of learning.  So, when I had the brilliant idea of assessing my students on their current understanding of grammar based on the several mini-lessons I’ve covered so far this year, I felt very good about it.  I spent much time last week putting the explanation sheet and rubric together for my students.  I even told the students about it last week so that if they had any questions about dialogue, commas, or complete sentences, they would have plenty of time to ask for help and seek support from me.  So, going into today’s grammar assessment, I felt quite good.  I had a plan: Explain the purpose of the assessment, have the students review the expectations of the assessment with their table partner, noting any questions they had on their whiteboard tables, and then have the students complete the assessment on their own.  Sadly, like my friend Tom, I forgot a step in the process.

While I had the students review the assessment, writing any questions they had upon their whiteboard tables,  I provided them plenty of time in which to complete this phase of the task.  I wanted to give them a chance to talk to a peer in order to process the assessment and information presented to them in written form.  I then had the students pose their questions to me in front of the class.  I fielded all of their questions flawlessly.  I felt as though they were totally prepared for the assessment.  I then let them get right to work.  As they worked, I observed their effort.  All of the students got right to work in a very focused manner.  They seemed almost excited to be crafting an original story about any topic at all.  The boys began feverishly typing.  It was pretty tubular to watch.  And that’s when it hit me.  Wait a minute, I thought, I never introduced the assessment or explained its purpose.  Do the boys even know why they are completing this task?  Oh no, I totally messed up.  But, as the boys worked, none of them seemed confused or bent out of shape with what I asked of them.  They diligently worked on typing creative stories that highlighted their ability to utilize complete sentences, properly formatted dialogue, and accurately use commas in written form.  I was impressed.  At the close of the period, I did review the purpose of the assessment by asking the students, “Why did I have you complete this assessment today in class?”  I was so amazed by their responses, as they all seemed to understand exactly why they were doing this in class today.  What, I thought, how could they know if I never told them about it.  Well, actually, I realize that I had back on Saturday when I previewed the week ahead.  I mentioned it and briefly explained the purpose of the assessment.  So, even though I didn’t go over the assessment in class today before I had the students begin looking over the handout and expectations, they knew what to expect and why we were doing it in class.  Huh, maybe not introducing the task at the start of class today was okay.  Even though things didn’t go as planned, they went very well.  Most of the students nicely demonstrated their strong understanding of the grammar concepts covered so far this year on today’s assessment.  Amazing!

Perhaps all of the effort I put into helping the students see the whys and hows of everything we do in the sixth grade classroom earlier this year, paid off.  Maybe the students are just so self-aware of everything that they figured out, on their own, the purpose and role of today’s grammar assessment.  Perhaps they have developed such great growth mindsets that I don’t need to say a thing and they will still be successful students, exceeding the objectives covered.  Maybe, or maybe I just need to change my perspective and realize that the reality doesn’t always agree with what I think should or will happen.  I need to be more open-minded when thinking about new tasks or lessons in the classroom so that I don’t get so stuck or fixed on seeing only one possible solution or approach to these new things.  Life rarely goes as planned, and I need to be okay with that.  In fact, I need to embrace the unknown and just jump right in to whatever will be, even if it means allowing a firecracker to explode in your friend’s lap.

The Power of Being a Role Model for my Students

Staring at the computer screen, my mind wandered…  I thought about thoughts unrelated to my day.  Why is this screen so bright?  Who made this computer?  How did someone come up with the idea to make computers?  Why do we rely on computers so much as a society?  Then I started to think about other innovations and inventions, like the light bulb and sliced bread.  How did they come about as inventions?  Was it one person or many people who pondered those problems?  Were they successful on the first try or did it take multiple attempts?  As we know, the greatest inventions did not come about on the first try.  Great inventors and scientists spent much time trying out ideas, failing, revising their work, and trying again.  The best things in life take lots of practice, hard work, and failure.  Just imagine, though, if people didn’t take risks and try new things, I might be typing this blog entry on a typewriter and submitting it to my local newspaper for publication.  Risks, hard work, failure, and perseverance lead to innovation and change.

As a teacher, I see the value in this problem-solving formula.  If I want my students to live meaningful lives in a global society, then I need to help them see how important risk taking, hard work, and perseverance are to creativity and innovation.  I need my students to know how to solve problems they encounter in new and unique ways.  I want my students to fail so that they learn how to rise up and overcome adversity.  So, I teach my students this process day in and day out.  I constantly challenge my students to think big and ask why.  I want them to always be looking for how they can make this world a better, safer, and more effective place for all to live.  I empower them to question everything.  I want my students to find problems in their world and then devise and create viable solutions for them.  I train my students to be change makers and innovators, because, as I’m always telling them, “One of you could find the cure for cancer or the solution to poverty around the world some day.”  I teach my students to be self-aware so that they can change things and make the world a better place for all people.

One easy way for me to help my students learn these valuable risk-taking skills is by modelling the desired behavior.  If I want my students to take risks and try new things, then I need to do the same.  So today, I unveiled a new grading procedure, with the caveat that it’s something new and it might fail.  It might not work out the way I have intended, but I want to try and see what happens.

As we utilize the objectives-based grading system in the sixth grade, we are often entering grades with meaningful feedback into our grading portal.  The students always know how they stand in terms of meeting the standards in preparation for the seventh grade.  They can check their grades via our online grading system at any time and know how they are progressing towards the graded objectives.  As my school requires that we also grade our students on their effort in class, we also need to assess their effort on a daily basis.  Although I take mental notes on their daily effort in class, I don’t necessarily make note of this anywhere.  I don’t enter their daily effort into our grading system.  I wait until the end of each marking period to enter their effort grades.  For many of our students, this is frustrating.  While they always know their achievement grades, they are always wondering about their effort grades.  “What is my effort grade in Humanities?” my students will often ask.  Sure, I can answer them with a ballpark number and some trite feedback, but I feel as though I can’t provide them with meaningful and relevant feedback that will promote growth and development.  So, this got me thinking…  How can I help my students know the reality of their effort on a daily basis, so that they can make the necessary changes to become the best students possible?

So, I decided to pilot something for the final term of our academic year.  Every day, I will enter an effort grade for each of their major classes, based on their daily effort.  Are they focused and on task during the period?  Are they prepared for class?  Did they complete the homework?  Are they being a good classmate?  Along with the effort grade, I will include specific feedback on their performance.  If they need to improve in certain areas, I will include that in the feedback.  If they do well in other areas, I will also cite that in the feedback.  I want my students to know exactly how they are performing in all areas of academic life so that they know their areas of strength and weakness.  These daily effort marks and feedback comments will help my students see what they do well and what they still need to work on.  I’m hoping that this change will better support my students as they grow into the best versions of themselves.

Now, I don’t know if this change to how I grade and assess the students will work with our grading system.  Perhaps it will mess things up.  Maybe the average won’t work right or explain the reality of their effort to the students.  Maybe the students will be confused by the data that appears in their grading portal.  What if I don’t have time to enter these grades daily?  What if this change doesn’t make a difference for my students?  What if they still keep asking me for more feedback or help in interpreting their grades?  What if this change ends up being a failure?  What if Einstein said, “Oh, this Theory of Relativity stuff is too hard.  I’m just going to give up.”  What if Thomas Jefferson gave up on making the light bulb?  We’d be in the dark right now.  I can’t let the possibility of failure prevent me from trying new things.  If this effort grading trial fails, then I will make some changes and try something else.  I will not let setbacks and failure prevent me from trying things.  Like my students, I will learn from my mistakes and find a new way to solve my problem.  I won’t give up, no matter what.  I’m hopeful that by me modelling this idea of trying new things, taking risks, and persevering, my students will see the value in the problem-solving process.

What Makes an Effective Sixth Grade Program?

As the winter term winds to a close today at my wonderful school, I find myself reflecting and pondering grading, assessment, and our overall academic program.  What makes an effective academic program?  What allows a school to function in a meaningful and relevant manner?  This then led me to contemplate the sixth grade program that I’ve been working on developing over the past 11 years or so…


Going through the adolescent stage of development is like being on a roller coaster without a seat belt.  When you flip upside down, you fall out of your seat unless you are holding on with everything you’ve got.  Each benchmark within adolescence brings new turns, curves, and loops.  Working with adolescent boys is like trying to dodge raindrops.  You can’t avoid the inevitable.  Craziness and chaos will ensue.  But heck, that’s why middle school teachers work with this age group.  We’re a little crazy too because we remember what it was like to be this age.

At Cardigan, we make it our mission to mold young boys into compassionate and mindful young men.  It’s a wild and sometimes frustrating journey, but we wouldn’t have it any other way.  Boys who attend sixth grade at Cardigan begin this adventure earlier than most as it is the youngest and smallest grade at our school.  Because of this, we have created a very unique  program that will help our boys foster a family spirit and connection that they carry with them throughout their time at Cardigan; to help provide them with some safety features on the bumpy roller coaster of adolescence.


Brain-based research on how learning really happens reveals that students learn best when they are engaged, motivated, feel safe, are challenged and supported.  The sixth grade program has greatly evolved over the years due to this research and, as sixth grade teachers, we are always trying to find new and innovative ways to inspire and effectively educate and prepare our boys for meaningful lives in a global society.

Our Philosophy: We’re a family, and families take care of each other

The first ten weeks of the academic year are focused on building a strong family atmosphere amongst the students.  One of our biggest goals in the sixth grade is to foster a sense of family within the boys.  We want the students to understand and be able to effectively coexist with one another in a way that celebrates their differences.  First, as teachers, we model the behavior we expect to see from the students.  Second, we spend time each week talking about what makes an effective community.  We have the students share personal information about themselves including interests, hobbies, sports, and social identifiers.  We help the boys examine all parts of their personality that remain hidden to most of the world.  In exploring this, the students begin to think deeply and critically about themselves and how they fit into the world.  They also have a chance to share this information with their peers.  While making them vulnerable, it helps the boys make deep connections with each other.  We provide the students with specific strategies on how to communicate with their peers effectively, how to solve problems amongst themselves, and how to work together as a team to accomplish tasks.  We utilize numerous team building activities as catalysts for these mini-lessons: The boys build spaghetti towers in small groups, create a scavenger hunt with a partner, and solve various tasks that provide opportunities to practice and learn how to be effective teammates.  We want the boys to understand what it takes to be Cardigan community member.  

During the first month of school, we take the boys on an overnight trip to our school’s CORE cabin to help build a sense of family and community within the boys.  While the location of the cabin is on our campus, it feels very like it could be miles away.  We build a fire together and then roast marshmallows.  We tell stories, play games, and interact as a family.  If problems arise, we take the time to help the students learn how to work together to solve them.  It’s an amazing experience that helps lay the groundwork for future whole-class experiences we will provide the boys with throughout our year together.


During the first term of the academic year, we spend time helping the students learn how to be present and mindful in the moment.  We teach the students many different mindful practices and strategies including deep breathing, visualization, yoga, and meditation.  The boys learn how to self-soothe and calm themselves during moments of intense emotion so that they are able to get the most out of each learning experience in the sixth grade.  We revisit and review these strategies periodically throughout the year as well so that the boys don’t forget them and are able to see the power they hold in helping them stay focused and in the present moment during class.

Classroom Organization

In order to help foster a sense of engagement in the classroom and to allow our students to feel as though they can focus on the lesson or activity at hand, our classroom is organized in a very specific manner.  

We have a reading nook area for small group work, independent reading, and movie viewing when appropriate.  The boys can sit or lie on the carpet squares in any way that allows them to feel engaged and focused.  We also have a small group work table for those students who need to be sitting to work and stay focused.  The desk table area is towards the front of the classroom near our interactive board and projector.  We use whiteboard tables to allow the students the opportunity to take notes, brainstorm, solve math problems, or just doodle upon them while working or listening.  We also use rocking style chairs at the desk work area to allow those students who need to move and stay focused.  These chairs help create a sense of calm and focus in the classroom during full group instruction lessons.  While every student is rocking, they are able to pay attention and listen intently.

These classroom organizational choices are based on the neuroscience of learning.  Students are able to genuinely learn the concepts and skills covered when they feel safe, engaged, and motivated.  The classroom furniture we use and the spaces we’ve created help our students to learn in a meaningful way.


Our goal is for our boys to feel connected to and engaged with the curriculum we employ in the sixth grade.  We want the students to enjoy coming to classes because they are excited and interested in what is happening.  We are constantly revising and updating what we do and how we do it, and because of this, our curriculum is a living and breathing entity.


In our humanities class, the students develop their critical thinking skills to become community-minded young men with an awareness of the world around them.  We begin the year with a unit on community so that they learn to accept and appreciate differences in others.  Through completing various activities during the first two weeks of the academic year, the students begin to understand how they fit into our sixth grade family as well as the greater Cardigan community.  The boys also learn much about their peers through this first unit.  Everything else we work on throughout the year in humanities class builds upon this foundation we create at the start of the year.  

The humanities class occupies a double block period that covers both the history and English curriculum for the sixth grade.  This integrated approach allows students to see how the big ideas in History and English go hand in hand.  We cover various communities and cultures from around the world so that we can provide the students with a macro view of the world in a micro manner.  Our goal is to help the students understand perspective and how it can change based on many different factors.  We utilize the workshop model of literacy instruction so that a love of reading and writing is fostered within the boys throughout the year.  

For Reader’s Workshop, the students choose just-right (engaging, grade-level and reading-level appropriate) books so that they are interested in what they are reading.  While at the start of the year, several students often seem uninterested in reading, they grow to become voracious and excited readers because the boys can choose books, novels, texts, and e-books that interest and engage them.  

For Writer’s Workshop, the students choose the topics about which they write within the confines of the genre requirements.  The vignette form of writing is the first genre covered in the sixth grade.  Rather than mandate that it be a personal narrative vignette, we allow the students to choose the topic.  This choice and freedom empowers the students.  “I can write a short story about anything?” we often hear our students exclaim.  For boys, writing is generally not something they enjoy doing.  They would much rather go outside and play or explore instead of writing.  We want our students to see writing as something that can be fun and hands-on.  If we allow our students to write about topics that engage them, a sense of excitement develops within them.

Math Class

As math tends to be a loathsome topic for many, we have made it our mission in the sixth grade, to help students see math as fun and meaningful.  We want our students to see how vital the skills they are learning in our math class are to their everyday lives.  While we do follow a book series, we supplement it with projects and activities that allow the students to see the relevance in what they are learning.  For example, to help the students understand the importance in learning how to solve basic computational problems, we complete a unit on the Stock Market, in which the students, working in small groups, invest in the stock market as they learn financial literacy skills.  In order to buy, trade, or sell stocks, bonds, or funds, they need to accurately calculate the costs associated with their particular transaction.  Through this project, the students learn the value of accuracy in solving various computational problems.  

We utilize the Math in Focus: Singapore Math series of books in our sixth grade math course.  We chose this particular math program because of the options it provides students when introducing new skills.  Students can choose one of three ways to solve problems using skills covered.  This versatility and choice leads to better engagement amongst the students as they pick the method that is most relevant to them.  As we often have a wide range of ability in terms of math skills in the sixth grade class each year, we have the flexibility to greatly differentiate our math instruction.  We challenge each student where they are at the start of the academic year.  We have the ability to help students work through a sixth grade, seventh grade, or eighth grade Singapore Math program based on their math capabilities.  This flexibility allows for the students to be actively engaged in the math curriculum as they are being appropriately challenged.

Science Class

Our science class teaches students to persevere.  They learn how to overcome adversity, think differently, see problems from numerous perspectives, communicate effectively, and be curious. We teach students what to do when faced with a new problem. As Angela Lee Duckworth stated in her well-received TED Talk, we need to teach our students how to be gritty. Our sixth graders are provided with opportunities to explore, try new things, fail, try again, talk with their peers, sketch out new ideas, and then do it all over again.

Our science curriculum holds the bar high for our students. Rigor doesn’t mean that we require more work to be done for the sake of doing it, it means that the standards and objectives we are teaching are challenging, specific, and relevant. Our science units challenge students to think creatively and solve problems in innovative ways. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are the foundation of our curriculum. These standards promote rigor and problem solving in fun and engaging ways.

In past years, we have completed units on astronomy, geology, Earth science, weather, ecology, and chemistry.  Every unit incorporates some sort of project or group activity that challenges the students to think critically to creatively solve problems by applying the content information learned.  For example, in our astronomy unit, we had the students work together to solve a problem facing Earth that originated outside of our planet’s atmosphere.  The students then created a space vehicle, using Little Bits, that allowed them to apply their unique solution to the problem.  Teamwork, problem solving, critical thinking, and creativity are some of the skills learned and practiced throughout the completion of this project.


At Cardigan, while we weave study skills into every course that we teach, we have one class devoted to supplementing and supporting every other core subject: Personalized Education for the Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills (PEAKS).  The true purpose of the course is to help the students understand how they best learn, metacognition.  We begin the year with a unit on the brain and its amazing plasticity as a way to help the students learn to become self-aware and genuinely own their learning.  The students learn how to change their thinking in the classroom so that they can approach every new task with a growth mindset.  Throughout the rest of the year, the PEAKS class works to provide the students with the vital academic and study skills they need to be successful learners, thinkers, and problem solvers.  If the students are working on a research project in Humanities class, they will learn how to effectively take notes from their sources and practice doing it in PEAKS class.  This course supports and challenges each and every student where and when they need it.


Student engagement isn’t confined within the walls of the classroom.  What the students do or don’t do outside of the classroom can be equally important.  If students aren’t seeing the relevance or value in their homework assignments, then we’ve lost them.  In the sixth grade, we approach homework in the same manner we approach everything.  It’s all about choice and engagement.  We want the students to further practice the skills learned in the classroom in a captivating way that allows them to continue learning and growing as a student.  Homework is not graded and assessed purely for effort.  If we want our students to practice, fail, try again, and continue to practice, then we must not grade this practice work.  Plus, since the students are completing the work outside of the classroom, it is difficult to know who is doing the work and how it is being done.  Are the boys getting assistance from peers, teachers, or parents to complete the work?  While we promote this self-help approach, grading the individual students on work when we don’t know exactly how the work was completed.  Most of the homework assigned is a continuation of what was worked on in class.  

For example, in humanities class, we do much writing and reading.  So, a typical homework assignment is to read from their Reader’s Workshop book for 30 minutes.  As they choose their Reader’s Workshop books based on ability and interest level, the engagement is already there.  Plus, this practice allows them to increase their reading stamina so that they are prepared for the reading demands of seventh grade.  Homework assignments shouldn’t be separate, stand-alone tasks that overly challenge the students.  Developmentally, by the time the sixth graders get to evening study hall at 7:30 p.m. they are exhausted and unable to focus for a long period of time in order to effectively process information and solve problems.  You might say that our homework assignments complement the classroom curriculum the way a beautiful brooch can bring out the colors of a flowing dress.

Project-Based Learning

To prepare students for lives in the global society in which they will live and work, we teach our students how to effectively work in groups to solve open-ended problems with no right or wrong answer. Students need to know how to delegate tasks, lead groups of their peers, follow instructions, ask questions, and solve problems. Project Based Learning ties all of the aforementioned skills together with ribbons of the required curriculum. While the students are engaged with the content and hands-on aspects of the project, they are also learning crucial life skills that will help them persevere and learn to overcome adversity.

Standards-Based Assessment

To help our students adopt learning skills necessary to grow and develop as critical thinkers and problem solvers, we use a standards-based system of grading. The focus is on the standard or objective being assessed. If our curriculum is set up according to the standards, why should we grade the students on anything other than what the curriculum asks? If we are teaching paragraph structure and the standard is, students will be able to craft an original, properly formatted, and complete paragraph, then we should only be grading student work on that one standard using a scale that aligns with the school’s grading criteria? Points must not be taken away for spelling, grammar, or other reasons unless the paragraph is being assessed regarding those standards as well. Rick Wormeli and other leading educational reform leaders have been talking about standards-based grading for years. It is the only way to accurately grade students on what is essential.

In this vein, we also want the students to understand that learning is a process.  Education is like a living organism.  Our students will grow, change, regress, and evolve throughout the year.  As we expect and want our students to meet or exceed all of the objectives covered so that we know they will be fully prepared for seventh grade, we allow students to redo work that doesn’t meet the graded objectives.  The boys are allowed to redo all and any work for a unit until the unit has finished.  They can seek help from the teachers and utilize any feedback we provide to them in order to showcase their ability to meet or exceed the objectives.  This grading system is dynamic and can be changed to allow for the students to employ a growth mindset and truly own their learning.


At Cardigan, we prepare students for an unknown future in a world that will inevitably be very different from its current state.  Because of this, in the sixth grade, we have devised over many years of data collection, research, and practice, to develop a strong and creative academic and social program that engages students in an applicable curriculum that teaches problem solving, critical thinking, coexistence, and how to manifest and utilize a growth mindset.  Students who attend Cardigan Mountain School starting in the sixth grade and then go onto graduate at the close of their ninth grade year receive a meaningful and rich experience.  They grow up together, and, in turn, a family atmosphere and spirit is created within that group of four-year boys.  While it can be challenging at times to be a sixth grade student at Cardigan, our inclusive program helps the boys feel safe and connected within a special family known as the sixth grade.

How Can We Help Students Learn How they Learn Best?

In college, I found myself constantly thinking, Why didn’t I learn this in middle school or high school?  During my Freshman year at Keene State College, I struggled quite a bit with some basic academic skills.  I didn’t know how to take meaningful and relevant notes from a class lecture.  After weeks of trying to write down every word the teacher uttered, I found a method that worked for me.  I also did not know how to effectively prepare for tests and quizzes, which is why I failed most of my assessments during my first semester at college.  It wasn’t until I talked to some of my friends and learned about how they prepared for tests that I found a system that worked for me.  I would have been much more successful during my Freshman year at KSC had I previously learned the crucial skills of note taking and test taking.  Why didn’t I learn those skills in high school?  It was very easy for me to blame my teachers during that first year away from home as I struggled to get through a challenging course load, but the only person who was responsible for not learning those vital academic skills was me.  These skills were taught in my middle school and high school; however, I failed to put forth the effort necessary to practice and genuinely learn them.  I didn’t attempt to learn how to be the best student possible.  While school always came easy to me in high school, I never figured out how I learn best because I was so focused on simply finishing tasks and assignments.  I never learned how to learn well or be an effective student, and that came back to haunt me in college.  Although I have very few regrets in life so far, I do wish that I had put more effort into focusing on how to be the best student possible.  I wish I had learned how to learn in a meaningful way.

As a teacher, I don’t want my students to have this same regret.  I want my students to truly know themselves as learners, thinkers, students, people, and problem solvers.  I want them to know what works well for them in school and into what areas they need to put forth more effort.  For every project, task, or assignment my sixth grade students complete, I make sure they know why they are completing this task and what skills they are learning and/or practicing.  I want them to see the purpose and relevance in everything we do in the classroom.  Once they see the value, for themselves, in what we are doing in the classroom, they will put forth effort to learn the vital academic skill being taught or practiced.  During these times, I make sure that each student finds what works best for them.  For example, if a student is learning how to utilize bullet-style notes to extract important details from an online source, I work with him to help him realize the most effective way for him to complete bullet-style notes.  For some students, they need to use complete sentences when taking this style of notes because it helps them make more sense of the material they are reading or learning about; however, for other students, they may find that pulling out key words or phrases is a more effective method of using this style of notes.  I want my students to find what works best for them.  As every student is different, each student needs to understand how he or she learns and works best.  I make it a priority to help my students learn how they learn best so that they don’t ever have to feel lost or confused like I did in college.

Today during Humanities class, as my students worked on the presentation for their Africa Projects, I was able to meander through the classroom like a magnificent stream running through a beautiful hardwood forest, observing my students.  I watched them work, answered questions they had about the process and requirements, helped them find materials requested, and provided them with feedback on their work.  One student chose a visual aide tool that I knew would be ineffective for him, and so I worked with him to help him realize this on his own.  I empowered him to find a visual aide vehicle that would be more suitable and engaging for him and his topic.  After much brainstorming and a few trials, he settled on creating a poster to highlight what he learned about the government of South Africa.  Another student seemed to be struggling to stay focused on the task at hand throughout the period.  While he wasn’t distracting his peers, he also wasn’t being productive.  I spoke with him about this during class, but saw no change in his work ethic throughout the period.  Emotionally, he seemed to be in a good place, and so I wondered what the problem was.  At first, I thought it was because he chose a presentation method that was not engaging or interesting him in any way.  Then, at lunch, I spoke with him about this, mentioning what I noticed and hypothesized.  He disagreed with me and revealed that he was distracted by a peer that was sitting near him.  While I never saw the distractions themselves, this student felt as though he did not choose the best spot in which to work.  So, he knows for tomorrow, that he needs to find a spot away from this other student in order to stay focused and be more productive and on-task during class.  Although he came to this conclusion on his own, I’ve spent much time during the last few months helping my students learn how they learn best.  They learned the power in choosing the right spot in the classroom for them.  This student clearly learned that and is planning to apply it in class tomorrow.  He knows how he learns best.

Much power exists for students when they learn how to learn.  My students are beginning to understand themselves as students and learners this year, and it has paid huge dividends.  They have made much progress since September due to the fact that they approach every new task or assignment with a growth mindset and much self-awareness.  When I tell my students to get to work, they silently set goals for themselves, find appropriate spots in which to work, spread the necessary materials out in front of them, and work in a focused manner.  When they encounter problems, they attempt to solve them on their own using critical thinking and self-awareness.  If they are unable to figure out their own problems, they quietly ask a peer or table partner to help before seeking help from me.  They know how to help themselves be the best students possible.  It’s quite amazing, and is sure to help them continue to grow and develop as they matriculate through the grades in school.  I’m hopeful, that this foundation I’m helping them to lay this year in the sixth grade will prevent them for being unprepared for their future years of education and schooling.  Knowing oneself as a learner, is vital to one’s future success in life.

Transforming Grampa Grammar Into Cool Uncle Cal

Grammar is like the prim and proper grandfather of the language family.  He wears a fancy sweater vest, which is made entirely of wool from sheep only found in Ireland, underneath his brown plaid blazer.  He has a copious vocabulary of large words, but doesn’t flaunt them often.  He’s quiet, but speaks when necessary.  The other members of the family are scared to ask speak with him as they are worried about the difficult questions he may pose.  What’s the difference between affect and effect?  Should you use lie or lay in the sentence?  He sits in the back of the room, usually in the middle of the couch.  Despite his quiet demeanor, he is the glue that holds the family together.  When trouble strikes, Grampa Grammar is there to save the day.  He adds conjunctions to run-on sentences to prevent them from running amok.  He throws periods and commas into oceans of text, saving many lives from drowning in chaos and confusion.  He is the quiet leader of the language family, despite his need for specificity and accuracy.

Grammar has always struck me as that grandfather-like figure who corrects you when you mistakenly use myself or them in speaking with him.  While no one really likes Grampa Grammar, we need him to know how to properly speak and write in any language.  In high school, I used to despise grammar lessons, as they felt so forced and difficult.  Why do I really need to underline every adjective clause in the 20 sentences on this worksheet?  Is this knowledge every really going to save my life or come in handy in the future?  Pssst, I hate to be that guy, but I’ve never needed to know grammar specifics since graduating from college.  If I’m ever curious about word usage or parts of speech, I look them up online or in the grammar guide I used in college.  Now, just because I don’t find myself needing to identify what type of preposition is in this sentence, doesn’t mean that it’s not important and good to learn all about grammar and what makes language tick.  Grammar can be very fun and interesting.  Diagramming sentences can be a really great way to spend a Saturday night with some friends.  If you incorrectly identify the part of speech of any word, you must drink an entire can of Mt. Dew soda while reciting the alphabet backwards.  What could possibly be more fun than that?  In all seriousness though, grammar should be an essential part of every Humanities or language class; however, how it is taught makes the difference between allowing students to see grammar as the stuffy grampa in the back of the room or the cool uncle that lets you drive his new Camaro.

Over the years, how I have taught grammar in my Humanities class has evolved.  I used to teach it in a way that made my students dislike it as much as I did.  Then, after doing research on grammar instruction over the years, I’ve come to realize that in order for students to really appreciate and see the joy and importance in grammar, I need to teach the topic in a relevant and engaging manner.  Worksheets make grammar seem uncool.  So, I’ve moved towards mini-lessons and novelty instruction.  I’ve tried to find new and intriguing ways to help my students understand why our language works the way in which it does.

Yesterday, I helped my students understand the evils of run-on sentences and how to prevent them from happening in their writing.  I began the mini-lesson with a quick discussion on run-on sentences.  I asked the students to define the term. I explained to the students that run-on sentences are like wild animals running loose in the classroom.  If we’re not careful, they will take over the world.  We need to keep them contained and leashed at all times.  The boys found this image quite humorous, which allowed it to better stick in their minds for future reference.  I’m sure that very few of my students will forget run-on sentences and how to prevent them from happening in their writing any time soon.  I then had the boys, independently, correct two run-on sentences on paper so that they had a chance to individually demonstrate their ability and prior knowledge on the topic.  This short activity then led into a whole class discussion on run-on sentences and how to fix them.  I explained the different types of run-on sentences that they will often see in their writing or the writing of their peers.  I had volunteers correct the sentences they had practiced repairing on their own.  This then brought up many different points including conjunctions, commas, semicolons, and periods.  We laughed and had fun discussing grammar.  The boys seemed thoroughly engaged the entire time.  In about 15 minutes, I helped my students understand how to properly write grammatically correct sentences.  Awesome sauce!

Yesterday’s lesson helped me see the power of novelty and engagement.  I need to find creative and inventive ways to teach my students all about grammar.  Simply providing my students with information on the parts of speech will not help them genuinely learn and remember grammar and how to create grammatically correct sentences.  I need to make grammar sticky for them, mentally speaking, so that they will be able to remember and effectively recall this information at a later date and time.  Today during class, when we were discussing trivia questions and how noone in the class answered a question correctly, one of the students said, “It’s like the run-on sentences taking over the classroom.  Craziness and chaos ensue.”  Yes, I thought to myself.  They get it and remembered it.  Mission, accomplished.

As I reflected on what this student said to me, it made me realize that I need to make all of my grammar lessons memorable, just like that one.  So, my brain began percolating, and ideas started flowing like chocolate from a fountain…

I would start introducing grammar at the beginning of the year by having students interact and play with magnetic poetry words.  I’d have them create super long and interesting phrases and lines of words.  I would then provide them all with a plastic knife that would represent a scalpel and train them to be language doctors.  I wouldn’t even use the word grammar.  I would simply talk about the need for knowing how to fix their own writing and the writing of their classmates.  I would then build on these language doctor lessons throughout the first term using grammar concepts without ever uttering the often evil word “grammar.”

I love it.  My idea is based on how some teachers at a school with struggling math students created a new course for them that wasn’t called a math class and the word math was never mentioned until the very end of the academic year.  The students solved problems and learned complex math concepts without even realizing that they were learning math.  My approach to grammar instruction would do the same thing.  I can’t wait to try it next year.  In the meantime, I’m going to keep trying to make grammar fun and exciting for my students this year.  I might even pilot some of my language doctor ideas later in the year to see how they work out.  When grammar becomes boring like the old grampa in the room, students become disengaged.  As grammar is the glue that holds language together, we need to help our students see grammar concepts as vital and important.  We need to empower our students to become language fixers instead of language disaster makers.

Challenging Students Where they Are

As research on learning and the brain has proven over the years, direct instruction is not an effective method of teaching for every student, in every class.  Teacher directed learning engages such a small amount of the population in any given class, and usually leads to disengagement.  Not every student learns in the same exact way, and so treating the classroom as a factory floor does not work when educating the future of our world.  Genuine learning cannot be fostered when the teacher is doing all of the talking, thinking, asking, and active learning.  Teachers need to transform their classrooms into student-centered, hands-on, safe zones.  Students need to be driving the active learning, talking, and thinking in the classroom for tangible growth and development to take place.  It’s all about meeting the students where they are and challenging them from that point.

In the sixth grade, my co-teacher and I meet with each and every student at least once a day to discuss their learning or behavior.  We are constantly providing our students with feedback on how to grow and develop as students and people.  We push them to become the best version of themselves possible.  Conferencing with the students one-on-one allows us the opportunity to ask the boys probing questions while challenging them to think outside the box.  In a teacher-centered classroom, individual conferences are not possible as the teacher dictates what is learned and how that learning must happen.  If we want our students to enjoy the process of learning and truly understand themselves as learners, then we need to empower them to think critically and creatively about what is being learned and how they must show mastery of it.

Today in my Humanities class, the students continued working on their Africa Project.  Almost every student was working on a different phase of the project.  I love how individualized and independent activities like this allow the students to be.  Those students who process information swiftly, have the chance to move quickly through the beginning stages while those students who need more time to assess the content and material, will be provided the opportunity to work at their own pace.  This is student-centered learning in action.  As the boys worked in class today, I observed and provided them all with feedback.  It was so much fun to watch them grow and learn as thinkers, students, and problem solvers.

  • As one student worked on creating his slideshow presentation, I noticed that he had way too much text on each slide, in the tiniest font possible.  So, I suggested that he think about the main message behind the text he had on his slide and summarize it into five or fewer bullets.  As he found this feedback useful, he revised his slides and then created cue cards for what he wants to make sure he mentions during his presentation.
  • One student shared with me that he was going to type out his notes so that when people came to visit his presentation booth at our Learning Exposition, he could hand them his packet of notes to read.  I challenged him to think about how to create a more engaging presentation.  After some thinking and processing, he realized how boring his presentation format would be, and so he decided to create a website instead.  This new presentation vehicle inspired him to think creatively and solve lots of problems as he learned to navigate the Google Sites online application.
  • When one student overheard me mention the idea of adding a Kahoot quiz to another student’s presentation, he was inspired to create a quiz in his presentation; however, he challenged himself to create a different type of quiz that used Google Forms, a tool he is not at all familiar with.  I was so amazed by his ingenuity and problem-solving prowess.
  • As one student chose to create a poster as the visual aide for his presentation, I asked him to think about the layout.  He needed to make a blueprint of what his poster would look like before I provided him with a piece of posterboard.  Before providing him with the material he needed, I shared with him some samples of effective posters students had created last year.  I wanted him to see the caliber of work that he should be expected to hold himself to.  I also wanted to inspire him to make use of the skill of organization when it comes to presenting material learned to others.

These individual student conferences or check-ins allowed me the opportunity to ask my students questions to inspire high-level, critical thinking and creativity today in class.  If I want my students to live meaningful lives in a global society, they need to understand themselves as students and people.  They need to know which strategies work well for them and which do not help them at all.  They need to know how to solve problems encountered.  Student-centered learning with support and scaffolding provided by the teacher allows for exploration and engagement in the classroom.  Students choose how and what they learn while being challenged to step outside of their comfort zone.  Learning must be about our students and not about us as the teacher.  We are the guides from the side while our students are the magicians in the middle.

How Reader’s Workshop Transforms Non-Readers into Avid Readers

I love Reader’s Workshop and everything about it when it comes to reading instruction.  There is really no better, more engaging and effective way to teach reading than through the use of Reader’s Workshop.  Students learn to appreciate and love reading because they choose the books they read based on their ability and interest level.  Gone are the days of trying to find creative and interesting ways to get students excited about mundane books such as Banner in the Sky by James Ramsey Ullman or Johnny Tremain by Esther Forbes.  While a small percentage of students may have enjoyed the class novels taught, most students either didn’t read the books or were so disengaged with them that no genuine learning took place.  Now, each student selects a book that suits their needs.  They are reading books that they want to read.  Through the completion of mini-lessons and class read-aloud novels, the students learn and practice how to use several important reading strategies that effective readers use.  Throughout the course of the year in my Humanities class, students grow into critical readers who are able to extract the main idea, infer meaning the author intended by citing sources and examples from the text, visualize what they’ve read as a way to understand what is happening in the text, ask insightful and thoughtful questions as a way to interact with the text and make predictions, and connect with the text through self-to-text and world-to-text connections.  While many sixth graders begin the year in my class not liking reading, they all finish their time in the sixth grade loving reading and excited to be able to read more books over the summer.  The Reader’s Workshop model of reading instruction instills a love of reading and thinking about reading within my students.  It’s amazing how transformational it is for my students.

Every Monday in my Humanities class is a Reader’s Workshop day, which the students look forward to on a weekly basis.  Many of my students will cheer when they enter the room on Monday and read what the agenda slide says our focus for class is: Reader’s Workshop.  Today’s Reader’s Workshop period began like any other.  I had a student share a book, which he had recently finished and thoroughly enjoyed, with the students in what I have dubbed a Book Talk.  The student explained the plot of the book and why he liked it so much.  He then read an excerpt from the novel for the students to get a whiff of the author’s writing style and voice.  The book didn’t even stay on the Book Talk shelf for five minutes before a student had grabbed it to read.  While I complete weekly Book Talks during the first term of the academic year as a way of exposing the students to various types of great books, I then empower the students to share Book Talks with the class later in the year.  This way, the students have a voice and are able to talk about books they have enjoyed this year during Reader’s Workshop.  I love building excitement around reading, and Book Talks do just that.

Following today’s Book Talk, the students gathered in our Reading Nook area in the back of our classroom for the class read-aloud.  Today’s mini-lesson focused on making connections.  Before I started reading from A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park this morning, I told the students that I want them to listen to the story today for how it connects to their life or something they have learned in the past.  After reading a few pages, I paused and shared a connection I had made with a part of the story I had just finished reading.  I then read several more pages aloud to the class, stopping to ask questions and discuss challenging parts.  Once I had finished a chapter, I stopped and asked the students to think about how what I had read today connects to them in some way.  I called on a few volunteers to share their connections.  The boys did a fantastic job connecting Nya’s and Salve’s narratives to their own lives.  One student shared a story about being at a summer camp that was infested with mosquitos much like the island was for Salve and the other members of his group as they traveled west.

After the class read-aloud activity, the students moved into independent reading time.  The boys each grabbed their own books and got right into silent reading.  Some read at their seats while others chose more comfortable spots in the classroom.  I love providing the students with choice when it comes to things like reading.  Some people enjoy reading more in a chair while others like to sit on the floor or near a wall.  As the students read, I conferenced with each student individually at the back table in my classroom.  I asked the students some questions about their current books in order to understand how they are progressing as readers.  For one student, I highlighted the growth he has shown since the first term.   During the fall term, he wasn’t able to read four books, but he has already finished his fifth book of the winter term with one week left to go.  I praised his effort and focus.  He seemed very proud.   Another student explained to me how much he has been reading recently.  He had read for over two hours during this past weekend.  Now, this is a student who started the year, adamantly expressing how much he does not like reading or books of any type.  He has grown into a voracious reader who can’t get enough.  These conferences allow me the opportunity to check in with the students on their reading and progress.

I closed today’s Reader’s Workshop block by asking the students to think of connections they made with what they had read in their individual books.  A few students shared fun stories about hardship and biting dogs.  I then asked the students why making connections between what you read and your life can help you become a more effective reader.  The boys all seemed to understand how making connections from what you are reading to your life allows you to better remember and recall what you have read.  Making actual connections allows for mental bridges to be built.

What an awesome Reader’s Workshop period!  The boys thought about reading, critically discussed reading, talked about reading, and read during today’s Humanities class.  It was amazing.  The positive energy in the room was very apparent.  The students love the books they are reading and it shows.  Despite having students begin the year almost despising the act of reading, all of my students have been transformed into avid readers who spend much of their free time reading now.  Wow!  The Reader’s Workshop model of reading instruction is more than just a way to teach reading to students, its a way to teach students how to love and enjoy reading.  As I know that my students will have to read challenging and often boring books in their future English classes, I want to make sure that they leave my Humanities class having a love of reading and are equipped with the proper skills needed to tackle any type of text.  Reading shouldn’t be something that you do because you have to; reading should be something you do because you want to learn more about King Arthur or Harry Potter.